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A Dutch Startup Wants to Train Crows to Pick Up Cigarette Butts

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The tobacco industry produces a lot of cigarettes, and that leads to a lot of filters discarded on the ground. According to Americans for Nonsmokers’ Rights, we end up with 1.69 billion pounds of them each year, making cigarette butts the most common type of litter. Plenty of creative solutions, from musical ash trays to roads made from cigarette waste, have been proposed in the past. Now, a new startup is developing a strategy that takes advantage of something that’s already a part of our cities. As The Next Web reports, Crowded Cities wants to train urban crow populations to pick up our cigarette butts.

We already know that crows enjoy picking at the garbage humans leave on the ground and in cracks and crevices. Crowded Cities founders Ruben van der Vleuten and Bob Spikman wondered if they could redirect this habit and turn crows into tiny garbage collectors. Training crows to do something as specific as identifying and transporting cigarette butts isn’t as crazy as it may sound. The corvids are among the most intelligent creatures in the animal kingdom—they’re capable of using tools, nursing grudges, and even holding funerals.

But even if crows were capable of learning the task, the team needed to find an efficient way to train them. That’s when they came across the Crow Box: an open-source project designed by Joshua Klein that acts like a vending machine for crows. Whenever a crow deposits a coin in the device, it rewards them with a peanut, thus teaching the birds to hunt for change. Spikman and van der Vleuten adopted this concept, swapped butts for the coins, and renamed it the Crowbar.

Crow flying toward machine.
Crowded Cities

The training process starts by attracting crows to the machine with a piece of food next to a cigarette butt. Knowing that a snack will always be there waiting for it, the crow is conditioned to return for more. After this step repeats a few times, the food is moved inside the device and isn’t made available to the crow until the moment it lands. The animal now knows that the machine can give it food in response to its actions.

At a certain point, the Crowbar stops releasing the food automatically. The only way for the crow to get fed is by nudging the cigarette butt into the receptacle. If it's able to figure this step out, the idea is that it will start scouring for cigarettes elsewhere as payment for its meal.

The project is still a far way off from becoming a reality in major cities. Crowded Cities is looking for ways to fund trial runs, and if those are promising it will still need to conduct research into the harmful effects cigarette butts may pose to crows. As for the skeptics who don’t believe crows can pull off such a sophisticated feat, the startup’s founders encourage them to take a “Sunday morning to browse through some crow videos on YouTube.”

Here’s one example they selected for your viewing pleasure.

[h/t The Next Web]

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Big Questions
What's the Difference Between Gophers and Groundhogs?
Gopher or groundhog? (If you chose gopher, you're correct.)
Gopher or groundhog? (If you chose gopher, you're correct.)
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Gophers and groundhogs. Groundhogs and gophers. They're both deceptively cuddly woodland rodents that scurry through underground tunnels and chow down on plants. But whether you're a nature nerd, a Golden Gophers football fan, or planning a pre-spring trip to Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, you might want to know the difference between groundhogs and gophers.

Despite their similar appearances and burrowing habits, groundhogs and gophers don't have a whole lot in common—they don't even belong to the same family. For example, gophers belong to the family Geomyidae, a group that includes pocket gophers (sometimes referred to as "true" gophers), kangaroo rats, and pocket mice.

Groundhogs, meanwhile, are members of the Sciuridae (meaning shadow-tail) family and belong to the genus Marmota. Marmots are diurnal ground squirrels, Daniel Blumstein, a UCLA biologist and marmot expert, tells Mental Floss. "There are 15 species of marmot, and groundhogs are one of them," he explains.

Science aside, there are plenty of other visible differences between the two animals. Gophers, for example, have hairless tails, protruding yellow or brownish teeth, and fur-lined cheek pockets for storing food—all traits that make them different from groundhogs. The feet of gophers are often pink, while groundhogs have brown or black feet. And while the tiny gopher tends to weigh around two or so pounds, groundhogs can grow to around 13 pounds.

While both types of rodent eat mostly vegetation, gophers prefer roots and tubers (much to the dismay of gardeners trying to plant new specimens), while groundhogs like vegetation and fruits. This means that the former animals rarely emerge from their burrows, while the latter are more commonly seen out and about.

Groundhogs "have burrows underground they use for safety, and they hibernate in their burrows," Blumstein says. "They're active during the day above ground, eating a variety of plants and running back to their burrows to safety. If it's too hot, they'll go back into their burrow. If the weather gets crappy, they'll go back into their burrow during the day as well."

But that doesn't necessarily mean that gophers are the more reclusive of the two, as groundhogs famously hibernate during the winter. Gophers, on the other hand, remain active—and wreck lawns—year-round.

"What's really interesting is if you go to a place where there's gophers, in the spring, what you'll see are what is called eskers," or winding mounds of soil, Blumstein says [PDF]. "Basically, they dig all winter long through the earth, but then they tunnel through snow, and they leave dirt in these snow tunnels."

If all this rodent talk has you now thinking about woodchucks and other woodland creatures, know that groundhogs have plenty of nicknames, including "whistle-pig" and "woodchuck," while the only nicknames for gophers appear to be bitter monikers coined by Wisconsin Badgers fans.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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Animals
Watch Christmas Island’s Annual Crab Migration on Google Street View
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Google

Every year, the 45 million or so red crabs on the remote Australian territory of Christmas Island migrate en masse from their forest burrows down to the ocean to mate, and so the female crabs can release their eggs into the sea to hatch. The migration starts during the fall, and the number of crabs on the beach often peaks in December. This year, you don’t have to be on Christmas Island to witness the spectacular crustacean event, as New Atlas reports. You can see it on Google Street View.

Watching the sheer density of crabs scuttling across roads, boardwalks, and beaches is a rare visual treat. According to the Google blog, this year’s crabtacular finale is forecasted for December 16, and Parks Australia crab expert Alasdair Grigg will be there with the Street View Trekker to capture it. That is likely to be the day when crab populations on the beaches will be at their peak, giving you the best view of the action.

Crabs scuttle across the forest floor while a man with a Google Street View Trekker walks behind them.
Google

Google Street View is already a repository for a number of armchair travel experiences. You can digitally explore remote locations in Antarctica, recreations of ancient cities, and even the International Space Station. You can essentially see the whole world without ever logging off your computer.

Sadly, because Street View isn’t live, you won’t be able to see the migration as it happens. The image collection won’t be available until sometime in early 2018. But it’ll be worth the wait, we promise. For a sneak preview, watch Parks Australia’s video of the 2012 event here.

[h/t New Atlas]

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