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Think Other People Have More Friends Than You? You’re Probably Wrong

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If you've ever felt bad about how small your social circle seems compared to everyone else's, fear not. A new study finds that most people overestimate how large the social groups of people around them are, according to Business Insider. In other words, people think others are way more popular than they actually are.

The study, published in the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin by researchers at the University of British Columbia, explored the prevalence of this misconception among first-year college students. Because freshmen are just entering a new social environment, many are leaving their longstanding social circles behind for the larger, unfamiliar territory of college life. They might not have made very many friends yet, but it appears that most believe that their peers have.

The two experiments surveyed a total of almost 1500 students combined. In the first, almost 1100 second-semester freshmen were asked about the number of close friends and acquaintances they had made at school—distinguished by whether or not they confided personal problems in them or not—then to estimate how many friends the other first-year students had made in the same time period. Almost half the students thought that others had more close friends at school than they did, while just 31 percent estimated that they had more close friends at school than others did. The same went for the number of acquaintances they had. The students reported having an average of 3.6 close friends of their own, but thought that others had an average of 4.2 close friends.

In the second experiment, the researchers followed almost 390 students, divided into two groups, for two years, asking them the same questions as in the first experiment. They also asked what percentage of their total time they spent socializing with friends they made prior to coming to college as well as what percentage of time they spent socializing with other students they met at UBC. They estimated how much time others spent on the same activities, then completed questionnaires on their well-being, life-satisfaction, loneliness, and sense of belonging.

Again, most of the students thought that other people had more friends than they did, and estimated that their peers spent more time socializing with their new college friends than they themselves did. This misperception extended even to their specific close friends and acquaintances, who they believed spent more time socializing with their other new friends than they did. However, the more time the participant spent with said friends and acquaintances, the smaller the gap between perception and reality were. Importantly, people who believed that everyone else was more popular than they were reported lower levels of well-being and a lower sense of belonging.

This misreading of others' experiences may in part be due to the fact that a lot of social activities are very visible, whereas hanging out by yourself is, by nature, not. Eating with a bunch of people in the dining hall is a public activity that others can see, whereas few people see you studying alone in your room. "This could make it difficult for students to imagine the prevalence of their peers' solitary activities and therefore to over-rely on peers' publicly visible social activities to estimate their peers' social connectedness," the researchers write.

The study only examined the perceptions of young people who find themselves in a totally new social environment, but it's easy to imagine that the same misperception could exist outside of college, too. It's not the only misconception we tend to have about friendship, after all. In 2016, a study revealed a depressing stat: As many as half of your friendships might be one-sided, meaning you consider someone your friend, but they don't consider you theirs.

It turns out, when it comes to our social lives, most of us have no idea what's going on.

[h/t Business Insider]

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Medicine
Charles Dickens Museum Highlights the Author's Contributions to Science and Medicine

Charles Dickens is celebrated for his verbose prose and memorable opening lines, but lesser known are his contributions to science—particularly the field of medicine.

A new exhibition at London’s Charles Dickens Museum—titled "Charles Dickens: Man of Science"—is showcasing the English author’s scientific side. In several instances, the writer's detailed descriptions of medical conditions predated and sometimes even inspired the discovery of several diseases, The Guardian reports.

In his novel Dombey and Son, the character of Mrs. Skewton was paralyzed on her right side and unable to speak. Dickens was the first person to document this inexplicable condition, and a scientist later discovered that one side of the brain was largely responsible for speech production. "Fat boy" Joe, a character in The Pickwick Papers who snored loudly while sleeping, later lent his namesake to Pickwickian Syndrome, otherwise known as obesity hypoventilation syndrome.

A figurine of Fat Boy Joe
Courtesy of the Charles Dickens Museum

Dickens also wrote eloquently about the symptoms of tuberculosis and dyslexia, and some of his passages were used to teach diagnosis to students of medicine.

“Dickens is an unbelievably acute observer of human behaviors,” museum curator Frankie Kubicki told The Guardian. “He captures these behaviors so perfectly that his descriptions can be used to build relationships between symptoms and disease.”

Dickens was also chummy with some of the leading scientists of his day, including Michael Faraday, Charles Darwin, and chemist Jane Marcet, and the exhibition showcases some of the writer's correspondence with these notable figures. Beyond medicine, Dickens also contributed to the fields of chemistry, geology, and environmental science.

Less scientifically sound was the author’s affinity for mesmerism, a form of hypnotism introduced in the 1770s as a method of controlling “animal magnetism,” a magnetic fluid which proponents of the practice believed flowed through all people. Dickens studied the methods of mesmerism and was so convinced by his powers that he later wrote, “I have the perfect conviction that I could magnetize a frying-pan.” A playbill of Animal Magnetism, an 1857 production that Dickens starred in, is also part of the exhibit.

A play script from Animal Magnetism
Courtesy of the Charles Dickens Museum

Located at 48-49 Doughty Street in London, the exhibition will be on display until November 11, 2018.

[h/t The Guardian]

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Health
Feeling Down? Lifting Weights Can Lift Your Mood, Too
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There’s plenty of research that suggests that exercise can be an effective treatment for depression. In some cases of depression, in fact—particularly less-severe ones—scientists have found that exercise can be as effective as antidepressants, which don’t work for everyone and can come with some annoying side effects. Previous studies have largely concentrated on aerobic exercise, like running, but new research shows that weight lifting can be a useful depression treatment, too.

The study in JAMA Psychiatry, led by sports scientists at the University of Limerick in Ireland, examined the results of 33 previous clinical trials that analyzed a total of 1877 participants. It found that resistance training—lifting weights, using resistance bands, doing push ups, and any other exercises targeted at strengthening muscles rather than increasing heart rate—significantly reduced symptoms of depression.

This held true regardless of how healthy people were overall, how much of the exercises they were assigned to do, or how much stronger they got as a result. While the effect wasn’t as strong in blinded trials—where the assessors don’t know who is in the control group and who isn’t, as is the case in higher-quality studies—it was still notable. According to first author Brett Gordon, these trials showed a medium effect, while others showed a large effect, but both were statistically significant.

The studies in the paper all looked at the effects of these training regimes on people with mild to moderate depression, and the results might not translate to people with severe depression. Unfortunately, many of the studies analyzed didn’t include information on whether or not the patients were taking antidepressants, so the researchers weren’t able to determine what role medications might play in this. However, Gordon tells Mental Floss in an email that “the available evidence supports that [resistance training] may be an effective alternative and/or adjuvant therapy for depressive symptoms that could be prescribed on its own and/or in conjunction with other depression treatments,” like therapy or medication.

There haven’t been a lot of studies yet comparing whether aerobic exercise or resistance training might be better at alleviating depressive symptoms, and future research might tackle that question. Even if one does turn out to be better than the other, though, it seems that just getting to the gym can make a big difference.

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