2017 Ig Nobel Prizes Celebrate Research on How Crocodiles Affect Gambling and Other Odd Studies

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iStock

The Ig Nobel Prizes are back, and this year's winning selection of odd scientific research topics is as weird as ever. As The Guardian reports, the 27th annual awards of highly improbable studies "that first make people laugh, then make them think" were handed out on September 14 at a theater at Harvard University. The awards, sponsored by the Annals of Improbable Research, honor research you never would have thought someone would take the time (or the funding) to study, much less would be published.

The 2017 highlights include a study on whether cats can be both a liquid and a solid at the same time and one on whether the presence of a live crocodile can impact the behavior of gamblers. Below, we present the winners from each of the 10 categories, each weirder and more delightful than the last.

PHYSICS

"For using fluid dynamics to probe the question 'Can a Cat Be Both a Solid and a Liquid?'"

Winner: Marc-Antoine Fardin

Study: "On the Rheology of Cats," published in Rheology Bulletin [PDF]

ECONOMICS

"For their experiments to see how contact with a live crocodile affects a person's willingness to gamble."

Winners: Matthew J. Rockloff and Nancy Greer

Study: "Never Smile at a Crocodile: Betting on Electronic Gaming Machines is Intensified by Reptile-Induced Arousal," published in the Journal of Gambling Studies

ANATOMY

"For his medical research study 'Why Do Old Men Have Big Ears?'"

Winner: James A. Heathcote

Study: "Why Do Old Men Have Big Ears?" published in the BMJ

BIOLOGY

"For their discovery of a female penis, and a male vagina, in a cave insect."

Winners: Kazunori Yoshizawa, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Yoshitaka Kamimura, and Charles Lienhard (who delivered their acceptance speech via video from inside a cave)

Study: "Female Penis, Male Vagina and Their Correlated Evolution in a Cave Insect," published in Current Biology

FLUID DYNAMICS

"For studying the dynamics of liquid-sloshing, to learn what happens when a person walks backwards while carrying a cup of coffee."

Winner: Jiwon Han

Study: "A Study on the Coffee Spilling Phenomena in the Low Impulse Regime," published in Achievements in the Life Sciences

NUTRITION

"For the first scientific report of human blood in the diet of the hairy-legged vampire bat."

Winners: Fernanda Ito, Enrico Bernard, and Rodrigo A. Torres

Study: "What is for Dinner? First Report of Human Blood in the Diet of the Hairy-Legged Vampire Bat Diphylla ecaudata," published in Acta Chiropterologica

MEDICINE

"For using advanced brain-scanning technology to measure the extent to which some people are disgusted by cheese."

Winners: Jean-Pierre Royet, David Meunier, Nicolas Torquet, Anne-Marie Mouly, and Tao Jiang

Study: "The Neural Bases of Disgust for Cheese: An fMRI Study," published in Frontiers in Human Neuroscience

COGNITION

"For demonstrating that many identical twins cannot tell themselves apart visually."

Winners: Matteo Martini, Ilaria Bufalari, Maria Antonietta Stazi, and Salvatore Maria Aglioti

Study: "Is That Me or My Twin? Lack of Self-Face Recognition Advantage in Identical Twins," published in PLOS One

OBSTETRICS

"For showing that a developing human fetus responds more strongly to music that is played electromechanically inside the mother's vagina than to music that is played electromechanically on the mother's belly."

Winners: Marisa López-Teijón, Álex García-Faura, Alberto Prats-Galino, and Luis Pallarés Aniorte

Study: "Fetal Facial Expression in Response to Intravaginal Music Emission,” published in Ultrasound

PEACE PRIZE

"For demonstrating that regular playing of a didgeridoo is an effective treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea and snoring."

Winners: Milo A. Puhan, Alex Suarez, Christian Lo Cascio, Alfred Zahn, Markus Heitz, and Otto Braendli

Study: "Didgeridoo Playing as Alternative Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea Syndrome: Randomised Controlled Trial," published by the BMJ

Congratulations, all.

[h/t The Guardian]

Great White Sharks May Have Led to Megalodons' Extinction

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iStock.com/cdascher

The megalodon has been extinct for millions of years, but the huge prehistoric shark still fascinates people today. Reaching 50 feet long, it's thought to be the largest shark to ever stalk the ocean, but according to a new study, the predator may have been brought down by familiar creature: the great white shark.

As Smithsonian reports, the analysis, published in the journal PeerJ, finds that the megalodon may have vanished from seas much earlier that previously believed. Past research showed that the last megalodons died roughly 2.6 million years ago, a time when other marine life was dying off in large numbers, possibly due to a supernova blasting Earth with radiation at the end of the Pliocene epoch.

A team of paleontologists and geologists revisited the fossils that this conclusion was originally based on for their new study. They found that many of the megalodon remains had been mislabeled, marked with imprecise dates, or dated using old techniques. After reassessing the specimens, they concluded that the species had likely gone extinct at least 1 million years earlier than past research indicates.

If the megalodon vanished 3.6 million years ago rather than 2.6 million years ago, it wasn't the victim of supernova radiation. One known factor that could explain the loss of the 13 million-year-old apex predator at this time is the rise of a new competitor: the great white shark. This predator came on the scene around the same time as the megalodon's decline, and though a full-grown great white shark is less than half the size of a mature megalodon, the species still would have been a stressor. Adult great whites likely competed with juvenile megalodons, and with the megalodon's favorite prey—small whales—becoming scarce at this time, this may have been enough to wipe the megalodons from existence.

Even if great white sharks eventually beat megalodons for dominance in the oceans, the megalodon's status as one of the most fearsome predators of all time shouldn't be contested. The giant sharks had 7-inch teeth and a bite stronger than that of a T. rex.

[h/t Smithsonian]

From Squatty Potty to Squat-N-Go: The Best Toilet Stool for Every Bathroom

iStock.com/eldemir
iStock.com/eldemir

In 2015, Squatty Potty's bathroom stool plopped into the popular conscience with a viral commercial that featured a unicorn joyfully pooping out a conveyor belt's worth of ice cream. The video racked up more than 35.9 million views on YouTube and reportedly caused a 600 percent jump in sales. "The stool for better stools" was a hit.

Now, it's a hit with the medical community, too. New research out of Ohio State University finds that the toilet stool—which aims to relax the puborectalis muscle and straighten out the rectum, making it easier to poop—really does help people who strain to empty their bowels. The study, published in the Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology's March 2019 issue, only involved 52 people, but it's the first clinical research into the Squatty Potty, and the results were very positive—71 percent of participants said they experienced faster bowel movements after using the stool for a month. A full 90 percent said they experienced less straining than before.

Since the Squatty Potty debuted, the company has inspired plenty of copycats, as well as launching a number of other official Squatty Potty design iterations targeted at every type of user. Here are the best toilet stool options for every bathroom.

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1. If You're Hesitant to Commit: The Squatty Potty Original

At just $25, the original Squatty Potty is a great entry-level option that will allow you to try out the system without sinking a ton of money into it. (And it's a whole lot cheaper than an endless supply of Metamucil.) The white plastic isn't the most elevated decor option, but it's durable, easy to clean, and relatively unobtrusive. It's available in a 7-inch-tall version for standard toilets or a 9-inch-tall version for comfort-height porcelain thrones. If you're not sure how tall your toilet is, the company makes an adjustable height Squatty Potty that can be configured to fit anywhere.

Buy it on Amazon, from Squatty Potty's website for $25, or at these other retailers:

2. If Your Bathroom is Tiny: The Squatty Potty Curve

The original Squatty Potty can be a bit clunky, but a newer version offers all the health benefits without taking up as much space. The Curve has a thinner footprint so that it doesn't stick out quite so far from under your toilet, but still has just enough room for your feet. The 7-inch stool comes in white, pink, black, and gray.

Buy it for $25 on Squatty Potty's website.

3. If You Text on the Toilet: The Keeney Bathroom Stool

A white and blue Keeney toilet stool
Keeney, Amazon

Keeney's toilet stool offers a few unusual features. For one, it has a storage bin designed to keep your wet wipes close at hand. More importantly, it's designed to hold up more than just your feet—it has a smartphone/tablet holder, too. Though toilet stools are designed to make your bowel movements speedier, if you're the kind of person who likes to spend a lot of time on the can, you can also tuck your smartphone into the built-in groove in the stool designed to keep your screen at optimal viewing angles. Whether you're watching Netflix or looking at Tinder, it offers a hands-free option that you're not going to find on any brand-name Squatty Potty. Ergonomically, it's also got slightly angled footrests designed to put you in the optimal pooping position.

Buy it on Amazon for $21.

4. If You're Into Minimalist Design: The Squatty Potty Slim

Great bowel movements and great interior design don't have to be mutually exclusive. Squatty Potty's high-fashion option may be pricier, but it doesn't have the medical-device vibes of the original model, either. Designed for small, urban apartments, it's a bit bigger than the Curve but a lot more aesthetically pleasing. The teak finish is great if you're going for a Scandinavian minimalist vibe, while the acrylic glass Slim Ghost model has an artsy mid-century modern look.

Buy the Slim Teak or the Slim Ghost on Squatty Potty's website for $60 and $80, respectively, or on Amazon for $80 or $83.

5. If You Need to Go on the Go: Squat-N-Go Bamboo X Toilet Stool

While Squatty Potty does make a portable version of its bathroom stool (the cleverly named Porta-Squatty), the most convenient travel stool is made by a competitor. Squat-N-Go's foldable footstool comes in two different pieces for easy storage and portability. The two bamboo platforms essentially act as stilts, propping up your feet separately. They offer the most customizable fit, with 7-inch, 8-inch, and 9-inch heights and the ability to place each footstool anywhere around the toilet, at any angle. When you're done, they fold down to just an inch tall and can be stowed in the included travel bag.

Buy it on Amazon for $40 or at these other retailers:

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