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Dirty Money: The Cash In Your Wallet Is a Magnet for Germs

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If an item is handled by the public, whether it's a library book, a subway pole, or an ATM, you can count on it being filthy. One of the worst offenders is something most people carry around wherever they go: money. As TIME reports, a new study confirms that paper money is a magnet for germs and other microorganisms.

For their paper, which appears in the journal PLOS One, researchers swabbed dozens of $1 bills collected from New York City banks over the course of 2013. The results showed microbes from numerous sources living within the fibers. Most came from the human body, like skin bacteria, oral bacteria, and even vaginal bacteria. But non-human DNA was also prevalent. In the summer, researchers were most likely to find traces from pets like dogs and horses, while microbes from indoor fungi were more common in the winter. Skin break out lately? The bacteria to blame for acne were the most common microorganisms detected.

That list alone is enough to make you feel squeamish when leafing through your wallet, but it doesn't end there. American paper currency is 75 percent cotton and 25 percent linen; this composition makes it a cozy environment for other microorganisms like viruses. According to SmartMoney, the flu can survive on paper money for more than 10 days under the right conditions. E. coli and salmonella have also been detected on paper bills.

While these facts make a good case for washing your hands after each transaction, there's no reason to make the full switch to plastic. The same properties that make money such a good home for bacteria also make it hard to spread those germs to people. When microbes settle into the woven material of a dollar, they tend to stay there, even when you take it out and pass it to someone else. And if some microbes do rub off on you, your skin does a great job of keeping them from getting inside your body where they can do real harm. But you should still remember to use hand sanitizer before eating that burger you just paid for.

Unfortunately, objects touched by strangers aren't the only germ-infested environments to be aware of. Here are some of the dirtiest surfaces lurking in your home.

[h/t TIME]

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Big Questions
What Is the Difference Between Generic and Name Brand Ibuprofen?
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What is the difference between generic ibuprofen vs. name brands?

Yali Friedman:

I just published a paper that answers this question: Are Generic Drugs Less Safe than their Branded Equivalents?

Here’s the tl;dr version:

Generic drugs are versions of drugs made by companies other than the company which originally developed the drug.

To gain FDA approval, a generic drug must:

  • Contain the same active ingredients as the innovator drug (inactive ingredients may vary)
  • Be identical in strength, dosage form, and route of administration
  • Have the same use indications
  • Be bioequivalent
  • Meet the same batch requirements for identity, strength, purity, and quality
  • Be manufactured under the same strict standards of FDA's good manufacturing practice regulations required for innovator products

I hope you found this answer useful. Feel free to reach out at www.thinkbiotech.com. For more on generic drugs, you can see our resources and whitepapers at Pharmaceutical strategic guidance and whitepapers

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.

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Health
8 Potential Signs of a Panic Attack
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It's not just fear or worry. In fact, many panic attacks don’t look like panic at all. Panic attacks come on rapidly, and often at times that don't seem to make sense. The symptoms of panic disorder vary from person to person and even from attack to attack for the same person. The problems listed below are not unique to panic attacks, but if you're experiencing more than one, it's a good idea to talk to your doctor either way.

1. YOU'RE DIZZY.

Doctors sometimes call the autonomic nervous system (ANS) the "automatic nervous system" because it regulates many vital bodily functions like pumping blood all on its own, without our having to think about it. Panic attacks often manifest through the ANS, leading to increased heart rate or decreased blood pressure, which can in turn lead to feeling lightheaded or faint.

2. YOU'RE LOSING YOURSELF.

Feeling detached from yourself is called depersonalization. Feeling detached from the world, or like it's fake or somehow unreal, is called derealization. Both forms of dissociation are unsettling but common signs that a panic attack has begun.

3. YOU'RE QUEASY.

Our digestive system is often the first body part to realize that something is wrong. Panic sends stress hormones and tension to the gut and disrupts digestion, causing nausea, upset stomach, or heartburn.

4. YOU FEEL NUMB OR TINGLY.

Panic attacks can manifest in truly surprising ways, including pins and needles or numbness in a person's hands or face.

5. YOU'RE SWEATY OR SHIVERING.

The symptoms of a panic attack can look a lot like the flu. But if you don't have a fever and no one else has chattering teeth, it might be your ANS in distress.

6. YOU KNOW THE WORST IS COMING.

While it may sound prophetic or at least bizarre, a sense of impending doom is a very common symptom of panic attacks (and several other conditions). 

7. BREATHING IS DIFFICULT.

The ANS strikes again. In addition to the well-known problems of hyperventilation or shortness of breath, panic attacks can also cause dyspnea, in which a person feels like they can't fill their lungs, and feelings of choking or being smothered.

8. YOU'RE AFRAID OF HAVING A PANIC ATTACK. 

Oddly enough, anxiety about anxiety is itself a symptom of anxiety and panic attacks. Fear of losing control or getting upset can cause people to avoid situations that could be triggering, which can in turn limit their lives. 

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