Why Don't You See Great White Sharks in Aquariums?

iStock
iStock

The great white shark is one of the most iconic creatures in the animal kingdom. Its fearsome reputation has earned it starring roles in books, blockbuster movies, and countless TV documentaries. But while they’re ubiquitous in pop culture, there’s one place where you won’t find these apex predators, and that’s behind the glass walls of an aquarium.

Many aquariums are home to sharks, including species like nurse sharks and sand tiger sharks. But the most famous member of the group, the great white, is almost always missing from the lineup—which isn’t for a lack of trying. As Vox illustrates in the video below, aquariums have a long and unsuccessful history of trying to keep great white sharks in captivity.

Institutions like SeaWorld and San Francisco's Steinhart Aquarium housed great whites in the '70s, '80s, and '90s—the decades following Jaws mania. But each attempt was met with the same problems: The sharks had trouble eating and swimming, and just generally acted unwell from the moment they arrived. A white shark that lasted more than a week in an aquarium was an anomaly.

While many fish, including sharks, easily adapt to life inside a tank, those same walls often turn out to be fatal for great whites. That’s because the species has evolved to travel fast and for great distances through the open ocean. When kept inside enclosures, the sharks tend to ram into walls and injure themselves. Sometimes they stop swimming altogether, and for an organism that needs water constantly flowing over its gills to breathe, that can lead to a quick death. Experts also suspect that being surrounded by glass might either confuse or overload the shark's electroreception system, which is used to sense the electrical signals given off by fish in the open ocean, not necessarily inside a glass box.

In 2004 the Monterey Bay Aquarium proved that with a large-enough tank and intensive support, a great white could survive in captivity for an extended amount of time. But even the system they developed worked only for smaller baby sharks, and even then it didn’t stop every specimen from bumping into the glass. (The shark that fared the best was released after 198 days, not due to her own health issues but because she had attacked two other sharks.)

Monterey Bay stopped hosting the sharks in 2011, but aquariums around the world are still attempting to support great whites without taking the same level of precaution. Last year, an aquarium in Japan announced the acquisition of a 11.5-foot male, the first adult great white ever held in captivity, only for it to die three days later. No matter how awesome they may be to view in person, fans should probably stick to watching great whites during Shark Week.

[h/t Vox]

14 Adorable, Vintage Photos of Rabbits

Chaloner Woods, Getty Images
Chaloner Woods, Getty Images

In honor of International Rabbit Day (held annually on the fourth Saturday of September), we've pulled photographic proof that the furry little mammals have always been appreciated by children and the adults who use a number of rabbit-related phrases and idioms more often than they probably realize.

1. DOWN THE RABBIT HOLE

Nursery school children playing with their pet rabbit Bubbles; 1939.
David Parker, Fox Photos/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Nursery school children playing with their pet rabbit Bubbles, 1939.

2. DUST BUNNY

 A woman spinning Angora rabbit wool in her garden, 1930.
Fox Photos, Getty Images

A woman spinning Angora rabbit wool in her garden, 1930.

3. MAD AS A MARCH HARE

A young boy holds a pet rabbit, 1955.
Charles Ley, BIPs/Getty Images

A young boy holds a pet rabbit, 1955.

4. BUY THE RABBIT

A golfer makes a practice drive while his pet rabbit minds the balls; 1938.
Reg Speller, Fox Photos/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

A golfer makes a practice drive while his pet rabbit minds the balls, 1938.

5. HONEY BUNNY

School children petting rabbits; 1949.
Chaloner Woods, Getty Images

Schoolchildren petting rabbits, 1949.

6. HAREBRAINED IDEA

A woman took her Himalayan rabbit, Albrecht Durer, on a walk in Hyde Park, 1939.
Fox Photos, Getty Images

A woman took her Himalayan rabbit, Albrecht Durer, on a walk in Hyde Park, 1939.

7. CUDDLE BUNNY

A little girl petting a large rabbit, 1949.
Chaloner Woods, Getty Images

A little girl petting a large rabbit, 1949.

8. LUCKY RABBIT'S FOOT

Schoolgirls care for pet rabbits, 1932.
Fox Photos, Getty Images

Schoolgirls care for pet rabbits, 1932.

9. PULL A RABBIT OUT OF A HAT

A young magician and his rabbit, 1971.
George W. Hales, Fox Photos/Getty Images

A young magician and his rabbit, 1971.

10. SNOW BUNNY

A woman shows off her two pet angora rabbits, circa 1955.
George Pickow, Three Lions/Getty Images

A woman shows off her two pet angora rabbits, circa 1955. Angoras can be sheared to provide enough wool for two sweaters each year.

11. THE EASTER BUNNY

A little girl holds an Easter bunny on a leash, circa 1955.
George Pickow, Three Lions/Getty Images

A little girl holds an Easter bunny on a leash, circa 1955.

12. A RABBIT TRAIL

Three children hold a rabbit, 1935.
H. Allen, Topical Press Agency/Getty Images)

Three children hold a rabbit, 1935.

13. RABBIT FOOD

A boy feeds his pet rabbit a lettuce leaf, circa 1955.
George Pickow, Three Lions/Getty Images

A boy feeds his pet rabbit a lettuce leaf, circa 1955.

14. RABBITING ON

Actresses Fiona Fullerton and Clare Clifford posting some of the many letters sent to the House of Lords and parliamentary candidates to request support for World Day for Laboratory Animals which was instituted that year, 1979.
Central Press, Getty Images

Actresses Fiona Fullerton and Clare Clifford posting some of the many letters sent to the House of Lords and parliamentary candidates to request support for World Day for Laboratory Animals which was instituted that year, 1979.

How a Wildlife Center Untangled Five Squirrels' Tails

Wisconsin Humane Society
Wisconsin Humane Society

Five juvenile gray squirrels in Wisconsin found themselves in a hairy situation recently. As The Guardian reports, bits of plastic and grass from their mother's nest got caught in their tails. Then the five tails became entangled, forming one solid knot.

This could have been a fatal situation had it not been for a "caring finder" who happened upon the squirrels and brought them to the Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre at the Wisconsin Humane Society in Milwaukee.

"You can imagine how wiggly and unruly (and nippy!) this frightened, distressed ball of squirrelly energy was, so our first step was to anesthetize all five of them at the same time," the rehabilitation center wrote in a Facebook post on September 14. "With that accomplished, we began working on unraveling the 'Gordian Knot' (Google it) of tightly tangled tails and nest material." (For the record, a Gordian knot refers to a difficult problem and stems from a legend involving Alexander the Great.)

Next, they used scissors to carefully cut away the plastic and grass while taking care not to snip their tails, which had already sustained tissue damage due to the blood supply being cut off. After about 20 minutes, they were finally freed. Now, the squirrels have fully recovered and are "very active and vigorous." Staff at the center are still watching for signs of tail necrosis—the death of cells and tissue—but otherwise, the fur babies are expected to make a full recovery.

Tangled tails are not uncommon in the animal kingdom. A group of rats with entangled tails is called a "rat king," and the phenomenon has been reported since at least the mid-16th century. There's no equivalent term for when this happens to squirrels, although it does occur from time to time.

[h/t The Guardian]

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