Archaeologists Discover Tomb of 'Chinese Shakespeare' Tang Xianzu

As William Shakespeare gained fame in 16th century England, playwright Tang Xianzu was making his own mark in China. Billed by some as the “Shakespeare of the East,” Tang—who, just like the Bard, died in 1616—penned operas like The Peony Pavilion, The Legend of the Purple Hairpin, The Story of Handan, and The Dream of Nanke, collectively called The Four Dreams of Yuming Tangi. To this day, Tang's works—particularly The Peony Pavilion, a dramatic romance—are still performed around the world. Now, according to Archaeology, researchers have located Tang's tomb in east China’s Jiangxi Province.

In late 2016, workers in the city of Fuzhou discovered a group of 42 tombs underneath a leveled building. The majority of the graves dated back to the Ming Dynasty, a period that spanned 1368 CE to 1644 CE. According to the Xinhua News Agency, experts think that one of the tombs is the final resting place of both Tang and his third wife, Fu.

Archaeologists also discovered epitaphs that may have been written by the playwright. They included personal details about Tang's life and family, which helped researchers locate the playwright’s individual tomb, according to the Global Times

China's official news agency, Xinhua, tweeted images of the tomb. 

"The epitaphs can help us learn more about the calligraphy, art, and literature in Tang's time," said Xu Changqing, head of the Jiangxi Provincial Cultural Relics and Archeology Research Institute, according to Xinhua. As for the tombs themselves, experts say they could teach them more about Tang’s life, his family, and various cultural aspects of the Ming Dynasty.

Thanks to their respective geographies, Tang and Shakespeare never met in person—or for that matter, even knew of the other’s existence. Still, that hasn’t stopped China from drawing parallels between Tang and Shakespeare, using the Bard to promote their own master playwright. Exhibitions examine similarities between the two men, Chinese opera companies create mash-ups of Tang's and Shakespeare’s works, and Fuzhou’s government even donated statues of Tang and Shakespeare to Shakespeare's hometown, Stratford-upon-Avon, depicting the two standing shoulder-to-shoulder.

But despite Tang's fame, his gravesite's location remained a mystery for years. Nineteenth-century writings confirmed that the playwright was buried in Fuzhou, and an empty tomb constructed in the city’s People’s Park in the 1980s commemorated this legacy. Now that the real thing has been found, Fuzhou’s city government plans to turn the site into a tourist attraction for fans and academics.

[h/t Archaeology]

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Drought Reveals Ancient Sites in Scotland That Can Only Be Spotted From the Air
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iStock

Typically rainy Scotland is in the middle of an unusually dry summer—and local archaeologists are taking advantage of it. As the BBC reports, the drought has revealed ancient sites, including Roman camps and Iron Age graves, that have been hidden by farm soil for years.

Historic Environment Scotland has been conducting aerial surveys of the country's landscape since the 1930s, but it's in seasons like this, when the crops recede during dry weather, that the buried remains of ancient structures are easiest to spot. Conditions this summer have been the best since 1976 for documenting archaeological sites from the sky.

Aerial view of field.
Historic Environment Scotland

The crescent-shaped crop mark in the photo above indicates a souterrain, or underground passageway, that was built in the Scottish Borders during the Iron Age. The surveyors also found remains of a Roman temporary camp, marked by straight lines in the landscape, built in modern-day Lyne—an area south of Edinburgh already known to have housed a complex of Roman camps and forts.

Aerial view of field.
Historic Environment Scotland

In the image below you'll see four small ditches—three circles and one square—that were likely used as burial sites during the Iron Age. When crops are planted over an ancient ditch, they have more water and nutrients to feed on, which helps them grow taller and greener. Such crops are especially visible during a drought when the surrounding vegetation is sparse and brown.

Aerial view of field.
Historic Environment Scotland

Historic Environment Scotland has a team of aerial surveyors trained to spot the clues: To date, they've discovered more than 9000 archaeological sites from the air. HSE plans to continue scoping out new areas of interest as long as the dry spell lasts.

It's not just in Scotland that long-hidden settlements are coming to light: similar aerial surveys in Wales are finding them too.

[h/t BBC]

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An Ancient Sarcophagus Was Found in Egypt—And It's Never Been Opened
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In what could be the plot of the next summer blockbuster, a sealed sarcophagus has been found 16 feet underground in the Egyptian city of Alexandria, Science Alert reports. It’s still unknown who or what might be lying inside the nondescript black granite casket, but what’s clear is that it hasn’t been opened since it was closed more than 2000 years ago.

Ayman Ashmawy, head of the government’s Ancient Egyptian Antiquities Sector, observed “a layer of mortar between the lid and the body of the sarcophagus,” indicating it hadn't been opened, according to a Ministry of Antiquities Facebook post. Considering that many ancient tombs in Egypt have been looted over the years, an untouched sarcophagus is quite a rare find.

The sarcophagus was discovered when a site in the Sidi Gaber district, dating back to the Ptolemaic Dynasty (305-30 BCE), was inspected before construction of a building began. The casket is 104.3 inches long and 65 inches wide, making it the largest of its kind ever discovered in Alexandria. In addition, an alabaster statue of a man’s head was found in the same tomb, and some have speculated that it might depict whoever is sealed inside the sarcophagus. Live Science suggested that archaeologists may opt to inspect its contents using X-rays or computed tomography scans to prevent damage to the artifact.

Although it remains a mystery for now, Twitter has a few theories about who might be lying inside:

[h/t Science Alert]

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