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Why Do We Sleep Under Blankets?

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If you’re one of those people who sleeps with a sheet even on the hottest of nights, you’re not alone. Plenty of people can’t fall asleep if they aren’t covered with something, even if it’s the lightest of blankets. Why? Dan Nosowitz at Atlas Obscura reports that it’s both physiological and behavioral, and may have a component of simple conditioning.

Surprisingly, he found, sleeping with blankets is a relatively new phenomenon. Historically, blankets were expensive. Through the Middle Ages, Europeans only owned blankets if they were very wealthy. They were so precious, in fact, that bedding was passed down in people’s wills. Instead of snuggling up with a fluffy duvet, most people slept in the same bed as the rest of the household, farm animals included, to keep warm. But as fabric became cheaper and blankets more accessible, they became more commonplace household items. Now, even in tropical places, many people cover themselves with at least something during the night, with the exception of some nomadic cultures near the equator.

Part of the reason is that the body really does need extra warmth at night. Your body’s internal temperature begins to cool down before you go to bed. That’s one reason why some sleep experts recommend taking a bath or shower before bed, since your body will naturally cool off afterward, signaling to your body that it’s time to drift off. (Sticking one foot outside the covers can help, too.) Later in the night, though, that cooling off gets less pleasant and more, well, cold. During REM sleep, your body can’t regulate its own temperature. And for the most part, people tend to be in the REM stage of sleep right around dawn, when temperatures are the coldest. So we naturally learn that even if it’s pretty hot when we go to bed, we’ll wake up shivering at 4 a.m. if we don’t have a blanket.

And then there’s the neurological reason: Weighted blankets have been found to decrease anxiety and stress, because gentle pressure can stimulate serotonin production. Serotonin has been found to help modulate sleep regulation, which is part of the reason that depression and insomnia are linked—when you’re depressed, your serotonin levels are low.

There are more simple psychological reasons to cover up, too. When you’re a baby, your parents put blankets on you when you sleep, so you’re conditioned throughout your early years to associate blankies with bedtime. Above all, maybe we just all want to be swaddled forever. Doesn't that sound nice?

[h/t Atlas Obscura]

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Big Questions
What Happened to the Physical Copy of the 'I Have a Dream' Speech?
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AFP, Getty Images

On August 28, 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. stood on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial and gave a speech for the ages, delivering the oratorical masterpiece "I Have a Dream" to nearly 250,000 people.

When he was done, King stepped away from the podium, folded his speech, and found himself standing in front of George Raveling, a former Villanova basketball player who, along with his friend Warren Wilson, had been asked to provide extra security around Dr. King while he was speaking. "We were both tall, gangly guys," Raveling told TIME in 2003. "We didn't know what we were doing but we certainly made for a good appearance."

Moved by the speech, Raveling saw the folded papers in King’s hands and asked if he could have them. King gave the young volunteer the speech without hesitation, and that was that.

“At no time do I remember thinking, ‘Wow, we got this historic document,’” Raveling told Sports Illustrated in 2015. Not realizing he was holding what would become an important piece of history in his hands, Raveling went home and stuck the three sheets of paper into a Harry Truman biography for safekeeping. They sat there for nearly two decades while Raveling developed an impressive career coaching NCAA men’s basketball.

In 1984, he had recently taken over as the head coach at the University of Iowa and was chatting with Bob Denney of the Cedar Rapids Gazette when Denney brought up the March on Washington. That's when Raveling dropped the bomb: “You know, I’ve got a copy of that speech," he said, and dug it out of the Truman book. After writing an article about Raveling's connection, the reporter had the speech professionally framed for the coach.

Though he displayed the framed speech in his house for a few years, Raveling began to realize the value of the piece and moved it to a bank vault in Los Angeles. Though he has received offers for King’s speech—one collector wanted to purchase the speech for $3 million in 2014—Raveling has turned them all down. He has been in talks with various museums and universities and hopes to put the speech on display in the future, but for now, he cherishes having it in his possession.

“That to me is something I’ll always be able to look back and say I was there,” Raveling said in the original Cedar Rapids Gazette article. “And not only out there in that arena of people, but to be within touching distance of him. That’s like when you’re 80 or 90 years old you can look back and say ‘I was in touching distance of Abraham Lincoln when he made the Gettysburg Address.’"

“I have no idea why I even asked him for the speech,” Raveling, now CEO of Coaching for Success, has said. “But I’m sure glad that I did.”

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Big Questions
How Are Rooms Cleaned at an Ice Hotel?

Cleaning rooms at Sweden’s famous ICEHOTEL is arguably less involved than your typical hotel. The bed, for example, does not have traditional sheets. Instead, it’s essentially an air mattress topped with reindeer fur, which sits on top of a custom-made wooden palette that has a minimum of 60 centimeters of airspace below. On top of those reindeer hides is a sleeping bag, and inside that sleeping bag is a sleep sack. And while it’s always 20ºF inside the room, once guests wrap themselves up for the night, it can get cozy.

And, if they’re wearing too many layers, it can get quite sweaty, too.

“The sleep sack gets washed every day, I promise you that. I know it for a fact because I love to walk behind the laundry, because it’s so warm back there," James McClean, one of the few Americans—if not the only—who have worked at Sweden's ICEHOTEL, tells Mental Floss. (He worked on the construction and maintenance crew for several years.)

There isn’t much else to clean in most guest rooms. The bathrooms and showers are elsewhere in the hotel, and most guests only spend their sleeping hours in the space. But there is the occasional accident—like other hotels, some bodily fluids end up where they shouldn’t be. People puke or get too lazy to walk to the communal restrooms. Unlike other hotels, these bodily fluids, well, they freeze.

“You can only imagine the types of bodily fluids that get, I guess, excreted … or expelled … or purged onto the walls,” McClean says. “At least once a week there’s a yellow stain or a spilled glass of wine or cranberry juice … and it’s not what you want to see splattered everywhere.” Housekeeping fixes these unsightly splotches with an ice pick and shovel, re-patching it with fresh snow from outside.

Every room has a 4-inch vent drilled into the icy wall, which helps prevent CO2 from escalating to harmful levels. Maintenance checks the holes daily to ensure these vents are not plugged with snow. Their tool of choice for clearing the pathway is, according to McClean, “basically a toilet brush on a stick.”

When maintenance isn’t busy unstuffing snow from that vent hole, they’re busy piping snow through it. Every couple days, the floor of each room receives a new coat of fluffy snow, which is piped through the vent and leveled with a garden rake.

“It’s the equivalent of vacuuming the carpet,” McClean says.

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