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Early Jamestown Colonists were Cannibals, Apparently

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Getty Images

By Lauren Hansen

The first English settlements in the so-called New World were far from glamorous. Indeed, early settlers in Jamestown, Va., were often starving, and forced to eat dogs, mice, and shoe leather to survive devastating winters. A few written accounts take things one gruesome step further and suggest that some colonists even ate their own dead.

Those cannibal rumors, it turns out, are true. A group of archeologists have found proof of our ancestors' stomach-turning eating habits, in the form of a mangled skull that is "absolutely consistent with dismemberment and de-fleshing."

In August 2012, a group of archaeologists digging around a debris-filled cellar on Jamestown Island—a 22.5-acre peninsula just north of the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay—came across the remains of a 14-year-old girl. They also found horse, dog, and squirrel bones, but the real find was the girl's skull, lower jaw, and leg bone—all of which have the distinct marks of an ax or a cleaver.

On the girl's forehead, we can see the choppy, almost hesitant initial markings that failed to pierce the bone. But when turned over, the back of the skull reveals the more effective blow that split the skull all the way to the base.

The forehead and left side of the skull before it was pieced together. Four rough cuts at the top are likely the initial attempts to hack open the girl's head. Photo courtesy Don Hurlbert/Smithsonian/Getty Images.

There are markings along the jaw line that indicate the tongue and facial tissue were removed. There is also a puncture to the left side of the head that was likely used, in a bizarre fashion, to pry it off and extract the brain.

Scientists say this skull provides definitive evidence that colonists were haphazardly trying to remove the facial tissue and brain for consumption. In the 17th century, such flesh from an animal, say, a hog, for example, was actually considered a delicacy, which is why these desperate settlers might have gone straight for the girl's head.

And before you get too woozy: Yes, the girl was dead before they started hacking into her skull. The markings indicate there was no struggle. However, the feast likely went down soon after she died.

"The attempt to [remove] the brain is something you would need to do very quickly because brains do not preserve well," says Dr. Doug Owsley, a forensic anthropologist involved with the dig.

So, what could have happened to this poor girl? Let's investigate:

In 1607, a ragtag group of English adventurers set out to create the first colony in the so-called New World. The explorers landed on Jamestown Island on May 14, establishing the Virginia English colony.

The swampy land was filled with disease-ridden mosquitos, and the settlers didn't have much time to plant ahead of the winter. The newbies were also under constant siege by Native Americans, who had colonized this land long before, and were none too pleased about their new invasive neighbors.

In 1609, a second fleet of ships departed from Plymouth, England, with reinforcements. Seven out of the nine ships managed to survive a deadly hurricane and landed at Jamestown in mid-August. It was on one of these ships, researchers say, that the girl, whom they have named "Jane," likely arrived.

Unfortunately, the new arrivals were more of a hassle than a help. The ships' crews hoarded what food they brought. Jamestown was already suffering from the worst drought in 800 years, and the meager crops the colony managed to grow over the summer were hardly enough to feed the township that was now up to about 300 people.

By October, people were hungry, and life was only getting worse. The subsequent winter would come to be known as The Starving Time.

Studying the fragments of Jane's skull, researchers found an enriched "nitrogen profile," evidence that the girl was at least at one time well nourished, with a diet rich in protein. This suggests that she came from a relatively high class, and that she thus didn't make the trip alone. But with no fresh meat or produce, Jane and her fellow settlers were forced to eat their horses, dogs, cats, rats, and snakes. Some would have even gnawed on the soles of their shoes to satiate the endless hunger.

One contemporary writing tells of a man who killed and ate his pregnant wife. The colony's leader, Capt. John Smith, records the miserable news:

"One amongst the rest did kill his wife, powdered her, and had eaten part of her before it was known, for which he was executed, as he well deserved," Smith wrote. "Now whether she was better roasted, boiled or carbonado'd [barbecued], I know not, but of such a dish as powdered wife I never heard of." [Fox News]

We may never know how many colonists were eaten as the wretched weeks turned to months. But now, thanks to the discovery of Jane, scientists know for certain that it did happen.

After six months of starvation, only 60 colonists survived. Defeated, the meager pack abandoned Jamestown and headed down the James River, intent on returning to England. But relief, leadership, and the seed of our future nation arrived in the form of Lord De La Warr (Yep: Delaware would be his namesake) to stop them. De La Warr, his relief fleet, and 150 new settlers, led the colonists back to the fort where the foundations were laid for a prosperous and cannibal-free future.

The remains of "Jane" as well as her reconstruction will be on display in Jamestown. And with plenty left to forage at the original site, archaeologists will continue to investigate Jane's untimely end, as well as her real identity.

SourcesBBC, Fox NewsHistoricJamestown.orgJamestown Rediscovery Project, The Washington Post


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College Board Wants to Erase Thousands of Years From AP World History, and Teachers Aren't Happy
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iStock

One would be forgiven for thinking that the Ides of March are upon us, because Julius Caesar is being taken out once again—this time from the Advanced Placement World History exam. The College Board in charge of the AP program is planning to remove the Roman leader, and every other historical figure who lived and died prior to 1450, from high school students’ tests, The New York Times reports.

The nonprofit board recently announced that it would revise the test, beginning in 2019, to make it more manageable for teachers and students alike. The current exam covers over 10,000 years of world history, and according to the board, “no other AP course requires such an expanse of content to be covered over a single school year.”

As an alternative, the board suggested that schools offer two separate year-long courses to cover the entirety of world history, including a Pre-AP World History and Geography class focusing on the Ancient Period (before 600 BCE) up through the Postclassical Period (ending around 1450). However, as Politico points out, a pre-course for which the College Board would charge a fee "isn’t likely to be picked up by cash-strapped public schools," and high school students wouldn't be as inclined to take the pre-AP course since there would be no exam or college credit for it.

Many teachers and historians are pushing back against the proposed changes and asking the board to leave the course untouched. Much of the controversy surrounds the 1450 start date and the fact that no pre-colonial history would be tested.

“They couldn’t have picked a more Eurocentric date,” Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks, who previously helped develop AP History exams and courses, told The New York Times. “If you start in 1450, the first thing you’ll talk about in terms of Africa is the slave trade. The first thing you’ll talk about in terms of the Americas is people dying from smallpox and other things. It’s not a start date that encourages looking at the agency and creativity of people outside Europe.”

A group of teachers who attended an AP open forum in Salt Lake City also protested the changes. One Michigan educator, Tyler George, told Politico, “Students need to understand that there was a beautiful, vast, and engaging world before Europeans ‘discovered’ it.”

The board is now reportedly reconsidering its decision and may push the start date of the course back some several hundred years. Their decision will be announced in July.

[h/t The New York Times]

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Nate D. Sanders Auctions
Sylvia Plath's Pulitzer Prize in Poetry Is Up for Auction
Nate D. Sanders Auctions
Nate D. Sanders Auctions

A Pulitzer Prize in Poetry that was awarded posthumously to Sylvia Plath in 1982 for her book The Collected Poems will be auctioned on June 28. The Los Angeles-based Nate D. Sanders Auctions says bidding for the literary document will start at $40,000.

The complete book of Plath’s poetry was published in 1981—18 years after her death—and was edited by her husband, fellow poet Ted Hughes. The Pulitzer Prize was presented to Hughes on Plath’s behalf, and one of two telegrams sent by Pulitzer President Michael Sovern to Hughes read, “We’ve just heard that the Collected Plath has won the Pulitzer Prize. Congratulations to you for making it possible.” The telegrams will also be included in the lot, in addition to an official congratulatory letter from Sovern.

The Pultizer’s jury report from 1982 called The Collected Poems an “extraordinary literary event.” It went on to write, “Plath won no major prizes in her lifetime, and most of her work has been posthumously published … The combination of metaphorical brilliance with an effortless formal structure makes this a striking volume.”

Ted Hughes penned an introduction to the poetry collection describing how Plath had “never scrapped any of her poetic efforts,” even if they weren’t all masterpieces. He wrote:

“Her attitude to her verse was artisan-like: if she couldn’t get a table out of the material, she was quite happy to get a chair, or even a toy. The end product for her was not so much a successful poem, as something that had temporarily exhausted her ingenuity. So this book contains not merely what verse she saved, but—after 1956—all she wrote.”

Also up for auction is Plath’s Massachusetts driver’s license from 1958, at which time she went by the name Sylvia P. Hughes. Bidding for the license will begin at $8000.

Plath's driver's license
Nate D. Sanders Auctions

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