8 Fabulous Facts About Shopping Malls

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Few places encapsulate American consumer culture as well as the shopping mall. The “shop 'til you drop” craze may have reached its peak in the 1980s, but enclosed malls have been a part of the country’s landscape for more than 60 years. In the latest title in Bloomsbury’s Object Lessons series, author Matthew Newton covers the storied history of the mall, from its birth in 1950s suburbia to its modern appeal for urban explorers. In honor of the release of Shopping Mall, we’ve selected some fascinating facts from the book that will put you in touch with your inner mallrat.

1. THE ORIGINAL MALL WAS INSPIRED BY EUROPEAN MARKETS.

When visionary architect Victor Gruen was first commissioned to design a shopping center in Edina, Minnesota in 1952, he looked to his home city of Vienna for inspiration. According to Shopping Mall, Southdale Center was America’s first example of a large-scale indoor mall, with nearly 75 shops filling two levels of retail space. At the center of it all Gruen built his version of a European piazza: an indoor court complete with fountains, goldfish ponds, sculptures, and plant life. That addition helped sell Southdale as a place not only to shop but to relax and socialize. The idea of a mall of as a social hub gained popularity when Gruen’s design was used as the model for more malls across the country. You can watch footage of Southdale from the year it opened above.

2. FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT HATED THE FIRST ONE.

Southdale was met with mostly glowing reviews when it opened in October 1956, but it had one notable critic. After visiting the site in November of that year, famous architect Frank Lloyd Wright expressed his distaste to the Star Tribune. “You’ve got a garden court that has all the evils of the village street and none of its charm,” he said. “Who wants to sit in that desolate-looking spot?”

3. THE DESIGNER DISOWNED HIS CREATION.

Victor Gruen lived long enough to see the shopping mall transform American culture in the late 1970s, and what he saw deeply disturbed him. The spirit of architectural innovation and community he built into Southdale had been sanitized from the facsimiles that popped up around the nation, Newton writes in Shopping Mall. Instead, developers chose whatever design maximized profit, and once open the mall functioned as a “gigantic shopping machine,” as Gruen put it. Dismayed by the phenomenon he had helped father, he announced in a 1978 speech, “I refuse to pay alimony for those bastard developments.”

4. THE MALL OF AMERICA CONTAINS AN AMUSEMENT PARK, AN AQUARIUM, AND FLIGHT SIMULATORS.

Inside of Mall of America.

Tim Bartel, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

Since it opened in Bloomington, Minnesota in 1992, the Mall of America has held the title of largest shopping mall on earth. The sprawling complex comprises 530 stores spread out over 4.9 million square feet, according to Shopping Mall. In addition to the attractions listed above, the mall is also home to a comedy club, a children’s museum, a mirror maze, and a mini golf course.

5. THEY INSPIRED GEORGE A. ROMERO.

Shopping malls have provided the settings for a handful of horror movies, including Chopping Mall (1986), Phantom of the Mall: Eric’s Revenge (1989), and Eight-Legged Freaks (2002). But the first director to highlight the creepy atmosphere of an empty shopping mall was horror auteur George A. Romero. After directing the classic zombie film Night of the Living Dead (1968), Romero headed to the shopping mall for his sequel Dawn of the Dead (1978). As he told the BBC in 1997, the choice to set a zombie movie there was very intentional. “Right then it was just really the beginning of that mall culture where you went there and you hung out all day. My impression of walking through there, going through this sort of ritualistic, unnatural, consuming experience, was that we really do become zombies in here.”

6. THERE’S A NAME FOR THAT HYPNOTIC EFFECT MALLS HAVE.

Have you ever lost your sense of time and geography while wandering around a shopping mall, only to realize it didn’t seem to bother you? That feeling of pleasant disorientation is what’s known as the “Gruen Transfer,” a phenomenon named for the original mall’s creator. Like casinos, malls are laid out in a way that invites consumers to consume endlessly without offering them a clear way out. As Newton explains, this can corrode a shopper’s self-control—after walking around the windowless maze of stores for a while, they forget what they’re looking for and give in to impulse buys more easily.

7. THEY PAY THEIR SANTAS HANDSOMELY.

Santa Claus is a major draw for shoppers with kids around the holidays, and malls make sure to pay their most famous employee what he’s worth. As Mental Floss has previously revealed, being a mall Santa is a salaried position, and those who pursue it can take home a generous five-figure paycheck for six weeks of work. That's somewhat less surprising when you consider that many Santas earn a degree from Santa University before taking the gig.

8. AMERICA IS HOME TO HUNDREDS OF “DEAD” MALLS.

Interior of dead mall.

Ashley Diener, Flickr // CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

The shopping mall was one of the many industries disrupted by the rise of the internet. Hundreds of malls have shuttered in the past few decades, and hundreds more are expected to close in the next five years. While some “dead malls” have been reinvented into spaces such as churches, indoor farms, and apartment complexes, others sit abandoned, only to be visited by the occasional urban explorer. There’s even an entire website, deadmalls.com, dedicated to documenting these modern ruins. For his book Autopsy of America, photographer Seph Lawless chose dead malls as some of his primary subjects. You can check out highlights from his work here.

The 8 Most Expensive Dog Breeds in the World

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iStock/ClarkandCompany

Big dogs, little dogs. Fuzzy, hairless. Tiny ears, floppy ears. Shelter dogs, fancy dogs. We love them all (especially shelter dogs). While Americans shell out an average of about $1675 per year on their dogs, purebred-loving pet parents are willing to pay more than five times that just to acquire the breed they've always dreamed of. Here are eight of the most expensive dog breeds in the world, according to The Dog Digest.

1. LÖWCHEN

Nancy, a 18-month-old Lowchen or Little Lion Dog bitch, poses for a photograph on the second day of Crufts Dog Show at the NEC Arena on March 10, 2017 in Birmingham, England.
Matt Cardy, Getty Images

​Löwchens are a petite, long-haired dog that have been a popular breed since the Renaissance, and are even featured prominently in paintings from that period. Nowadays, these "little lions" are extremely rare, pushing their cost to as much as $10,000 in some places around the world.

2. SAMOYED

A Samoyed sits in a flower-filled field
iStock/bruev

This breed's name comes from the Samoyedic peoples of Siberia, who used these fluffy white dogs to herd reindeer and pull sleds for their nomadic groups. The competitive, strong dogs can cost from $8000 to $10,000.

3. TIBETAN MASTIFF

Beautiful Tibetan mastiff on the background of the winter landscape of nature
iStock/~User7565abab_575

The Tibetan Mastiff originated with the ancient nomadic cultures of China, Nepal, and Tibet. Tribes of Himachal Pradesh used this breed as a guard to protect sheep from predators, making them a very protective breed for any owner. The massive dogs can weigh up to 160 pounds and be as tall as 33 inches. The price for this breed is equally as massive, reaching up to $7000.

4. PHARAOH HOUND

Pharaoh hound with a leather collar lying down on a snow in winter
iStock/Eudyptula

The Pharaoh Hound is a Maltese breed whose native name, Kelb tal-Fenek, means "rabbit dog," because they were traditionally used for hunting rabbits. These dogs are highly intelligent as well as athletic. Some bloodlines of this breed can cost owners $6500. We hope the rabbits are worth it!

5. AKITA

Akita dog in grass
iStock/baiajaku

The Akita breed originated from the mountainous regions of northern Japan. An Akita can be categorized as either a Japanese or an American Akita, but all come with a short double-coat similar to that of a Siberian Husky. Certain breeds of the Akita can be priced as high as $4500.

6. AZAWAKH

Azawakh on a white background
iStock/fotojagodka

The West African Azawakh is one of the few breeds of African breeds that is available for purchase in the United States and Canada. This lively dog requires lots of physical activity and moves with a distinct feline gait. They can be identified by their almond eyes, thin bodies, and sandy color. These exotic pooches can be priced from $3000 and up.

7. PERUVIAN INCA ORCHID

Photo of a Peruvian hairless dog
iStock/manx_in_the_world

This pup is a hairless dog with origins in Peruvian pre-Inca cultures. As they're completely hairless with elephant grey skin, the dogs are quite unique in appearance. This breed is priced up to $3000.

8. SALUKI

Portrait of a Elegant Saluki Arabian Hound
iStock/ClarkandCompany

​The Saluki is the Royal Dog of Egypt, meaning it has been man's best friend since the pharaohs roamed the pyramids. Salukis are classed as a sighthound, with long legs and a deep chest. Being tall and lean, the males can weigh up to 60 pounds and measure up to 28 inches. Prices of these pups can reach up to $2500.

5 Ways You Can Help California's Wildfire Victims

Fire Captain Steve Millosovich carries a cage full of cats after a wildfire destroyed homes and land in Paradise, California.
Fire Captain Steve Millosovich carries a cage full of cats after a wildfire destroyed homes and land in Paradise, California.
Justin Sullivan, Getty Images

The “Camp Fire” in Northern California’s Butte County has killed more than 40 people and destroyed more than 7100 homes since it started tearing through the region on November 8. Authorities are still investigating the cause, but it has already been labeled the deadliest wildfire in California’s history. At the same time, two other fires—Woolsey and Hill—have been wreaking damage in areas northwest of Los Angeles. Here are some ways you can help the victims.

1. DONATE MONEY

Making a financial contribution to a nonprofit that’s helping wildfire victims is usually the best way of ensuring your donation will be utilized, according to the Center for International Disaster Information. The flexibility of a monetary donation lets disaster responders decide what’s most needed at any given moment. Listed below are a few of the charities and companies accepting donations on behalf of victims, according to The New York Times.

American Red Cross

California Community Foundation’s Wildlife Relief Fund

California Fire Foundation

Enloe Medical Center

Google (Scroll down and click "Yes, Donate")

Humane Society of Ventura County

North Valley Community Foundation

Salvation Army

United Way of Greater Los Angeles

Before determining which charity to choose, it pays to visit Charity Navigator and do a little bit of research to determine which organizations are the most reputable, and how much of your donation will make it directly to the victims.

2. DONATE FOOD

If you’re based in California and want to contribute something other than money, you have a few options. But first, make sure you’re choosing an organization that has the time and resources to coordinate these donations. Los Angeles firefighters, for example, received way more goods (to the tune of 5000 pounds) than they could handle. However, you can still donate non-perishable food items to the Salvation Army Ventura Corps, which is assisting individuals affected by the Woolsey and Hill fires in Southern California. If you happen to see days-old requests for donated goods, just visit that organization's website or social media channels first to make sure they aren't at full capacity.

3. OPEN UP YOUR HOME

Airbnb is encouraging people in the Butte County region to open up their homes to wildfire victims while the figure out longer-term arrangements. From now through November 29, Airbnb users can advertise their homes as free, temporary shelters for aid workers and evacuees, The New York Times reports. Hosts have the chance to communicate with potential guests in advance, and hosts can also determine the length of stay. Hosts in Butte County are welcome to sign up (click here for more info), as well as those living in Ventura, Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, and San Diego counties (click here for info).

4. FOSTER OR ADOPT A PET

Just as humans are being displaced by California's wildfires, so too are their pets. Whether it's because they've been separated from their families or their pet parents are in a temporary living situation that does not allow for animals, hundreds of now-homeless pets are arriving at shelters around California every day. In order to make as much room as possible for more intakes, LA Animal Services posted an urgent call for fosters and adopters on its Facebook page. If you're not in the California area, donating money and supplies to these same shelters is also an option. SPCAla, for example, has set up an Amazon Wish List.

5. VOLUNTEER YOUR TIME AND EXPERTISE

Caring Choices, a nonprofit in Northern California, is currently accepting applications from volunteers with medical backgrounds or other skills—such as data entry, radio communications, or animal care—that are currently needed. (Manual skills, like being able to remove debris, are also listed on the volunteer application form.)

They’ve already received thousands of volunteer applications and aren’t able to sift through them all immediately, but they’re still urging volunteers in the region to apply. “This a marathon and not a sprint,” the organization wrote on its website. “We will need more volunteers in the coming weeks and months as we continue through the disaster response, relief, and recovery efforts.” To apply, fill out this application and email it to aavendano@caring-choices.org. You may also want to consider volunteering with the United Way or The American Red Cross.

Keep checking California Volunteers for additional volunteer opportunities.

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