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15 Underrated Dog Breeds You Should Know

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We’ve all probably spotted Golden Retrievers and German Shepherds, but when was the last time an Otterhound crossed your path? Check out these dog breeds that could use a little more puppy love.

1. BORZOI

For centuries, these Slavic canines were used by Russian noblemen to chase down wolves on expensive, large-scale hunts. The practice—which Leo Tolstoy dramatized in War and Peace—called for small armies of Borzoi and some campaigns featured more than 100 dogs. But with the decline of Russia’s old aristocracy, the breed took a nosedive in popularity. Nonetheless, it still commands a loyal fanbase today.

But the affectionate pups can sing their own praises, sort of. At a 1971 concert, Pink Floyd let a Borzoi provide some vocals. The dog, named Nobs, was coaxed into howling on stage. While she showed off her pipes, band members David Gilmour, Roger Waters, and Richard Wright played a blues tune. Originally known as “Seamus,” this tune was re-named “Mademoiselle Nobs” in her honor.

2. ANATOLIAN SHEPHERD

Anatolian Shepherd dog
Anatolian Shepherds
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The Anatolian Shepherd combines the speed and endurance of a sighthound with a mastiff’s powerful build. It's a combination perfect for guarding livestock from wolves, big cats, and other carnivores. Ironically, conservationists are now using this talent to help save one of the world’s most famous predators: the cheetah. Within the endangered cats’ native range, it’s long been common practice for ranchers to kill them on sight. To combat that, the Cheetah Conservation Fund has been supplying Namibia’s farmers with Anatolian Shepherds and Kangal dogs (another large breed). The fast and intimidating canines can scare off hungry felines in a non-violent manner. According to the CCF, farmers who use their guard dogs are now 80 to 100 percent less likely to shoot trespassing cheetahs.

3. OTTERHOUND

Otterhound
Otterhound dog
Carl Court / Staff / Getty Images

Soon, the Otterhound may join the ranks of the Paisley Terrier and Braque du Puy as an extinct dog breed. Fewer than 1000 of the rough-coated rounds are presently accounted for, making the breed rarer than the Giant Panda.

Their origins can be traced back to Medieval England. During that time, most English families relied on stream-caught fish as a dietary cornerstone. Any decline in the local fish stock could spell disaster for entire communities—so, naturally, carnivorous river otters weren’t too popular. Enter the Otterhound. Bred with webbed feet and powerful tails that could act as rudders, the dogs were great amphibious hunters. Also, their keen sense of smell made them expert otter-trackers. (Other traits are less utilitarian: Many keepers have commented that otterhounds have a habit of sleeping with all four paws in the air.) When the English government banned otter-hunting in 1982, the breed became scarce and its long-term survival is now very uncertain. As owner Betsy Conway put it to The New York Times, “You’re talking about an ancient breed that no longer has a job.”

4. SAKHALIN HUSKY

Although it’s very endangered, the Sakhalin Husky will always be associated with one remarkable story of survival. In 1957, an expedition team from the Japanese National Institute of Polar Research arrived in Antarctica for a year-long stay. The group consisted of 11 researchers and 15 Sakhalin Huskies, who were to serve as sled dogs. They’d been instructed to occupy a newly-built Antarctic base camp, where the squad would remain for 12 months until a replacement team arrived to send the humans home and assume responsibility for the dogs.

Unfortunately, things did not go as planned. Due to a storm, the second team never made it to Antarctica. And when a helicopter arrived to retrieve the first group, there was no room for their canine companions, who were left behind. Seven of the dogs died at the site and six others vanished without a trace. But the remaining two managed to stay alive for an entire year until they were finally rescued by a third expedition. Named Taro and Jiro, these husky survivalists became celebrities in Japan, where multiple statues have been dedicated to them. Their tale also inspired two feature films—most recently Disney’s Eight Below (2006).

5. NORWEGIAN LUNDEHUND

Norwegian Lundehund
A Norwegian Lundehund shows out at the American Kennel Club Offices in New York City in 2011.
Gary Gershoff / Stringer / Getty Images

Grab a Norwegian Lundehund’s paw and you might find yourself doing a double-take. This unusual breed comes with not four, not five, but six toes on each foot. And, for the record, none of these digits are useless anatomical curiosities. Instead, every single toe is jointed and fully-functional. The canines were designed to hunt down puffins (in fact, the name “Lundehund” literally means “puffin dog”). That’s a tough job. Puffins tend to station themselves on slippery rock faces, where it’s difficult for a potential predator to get a grip. Having extra toes, complete with specialized paw pads, enabled Lundehunds to scale these surfaces more easily.

6. TIBETAN MASTIFF

Tibetan Mastiff
Tibetan Mastiff
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Though the genetic evidence is inconclusive, it’s thought that modern Chow Chows, Boxers, and Saint Bernards may have all been derived—at least in part—from the majestic Tibetan Mastiff. If you want a dog that’s guaranteed to scare off any intruder, this breed fits the bill. Weighing up to 220 pounds and renowned for their booming barks, Tibetan Mastiffs make for impressive guardians.

It should go without saying, though, that they’re not great pets for apartment-dwellers. Apparently, Dwight Eisenhower didn’t think they’d fare well at the White House either. In 1958, Nepal’s government gifted the president with a pair of Tibetan Mastiffs. Unable to accommodate them, the president handed both dogs off to Senator Harry Darby, a fellow Republican who raised the pets on his farm in Edwardsville, Kansas.

7. BERGER PICARD

Berger Picard
A Berger Picard takes the floor at the 2016 Westminster Kennel Club dog show in New York City.
Stephanie Keith / Stringer / Getty Images

An active, friendly breed, the Berger Picard may be France’s oldest variety of sheepdog. By some accounts, they’ve been living there since the year 400 BCE. Unfortunately, World Wars I and II put the long-term survival of this ancient breed in jeopardy. At the time, Berger Picards were primarily found in northwestern France. Those global conflicts ravaged the region and countless dogs perished in the melee. With the help of mating programs in later decades, the Berger Picard escaped extinction.

Today, the medium-sized breed is synonymous with the 2005 movie Because of Winn-Dixie, which cast three of the sheepdogs to play its title character. According to the Berger Picard Club of America, the film’s producers picked this breed due to its mutt-like appearance. They chose well; most viewers had no idea that the Winn-Dixie dogs were actually purebreds. This was a blessing in disguise. More than a decade before that, 101 Dalmatians (1996) triggered a huge demand for the liver-spotted breed that the classic movie featured. The result was hundreds of abandoned Dalmatians left behind by new owners who’d adopted them impulsively.

8. AUSTRALIAN CATTLE DOG

Australian Cattle Dog
Australian Cattle Dog
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During the nineteenth century, breeders in Australia worked for decades to create a herding dog that was agile, loyal, and tough enough to survive the continent’s brutal heatwaves. The result was the Australian Cattle Dog, a canine breed whose ancestors include Dalmatians, Kelpies, Smithfields, and even Dingoes. Not only are the canines hard-working, they are also known live for long periods. One specimen, a male named Bluey, had lived for 29 years, five months, and seven days when he passed away in 1939. To date, this is the longest canine lifespan ever recorded.

9. XOLOITZCUINTLI

Mexican Hairless Dog Xoloitzcuintli
A Xoloitzcuintli, also know as a Mexican Hairless Dog
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One of the world's oldest breeds and considered a national treasure in Mexico, the Xoloitzcuintli (pronounced show-low-etz-queent-lee) originated in ancient Central America. Its name is a combination of the Aztec word for dog, itzcuintli, and Xolotl, the name of a legendary death god who was sometimes said to have the head of a large canine. If you’re still worried about getting tongue-tied, know that many pet-keepers just call these calm canines “Xolos” or “Mexican Hairless Dogs.” The latter nickname refers to this breed’s most striking feature. While some specimens have coats, roughly four out of five display a near-total lack of body hair. Owners should therefore be on guard against acne and other skin conditions.

10. AZAWAKH

Azawakh
A Azawakh take the field at London's Greatest Dog Show in the World in 2004.
JIM WATSON / Staff / Getty Images

Almost deer-like in appearance, Azawakhs—also known as the Tuareg Sloughis—have the long limbs of a racing dog. And yet, although these dogs can hit a top running speed of 40 miles per hour, these sight hounds are primarily used as family guards and livestock protectors in their native West Africa. The breed didn’t arrive in the United States until the late 1980's when the first confirmed American-born litter came into the world.

11. CAROLINA DOG

One hypothesis about the Carolina Dog: While most dog varieties are the result of human-supervised cross-breeding, the Carolina Dog may have attained its current shape with little to no help from mankind. We know from archaeological evidence that some of the continent’s first settlers brought tame or domesticated dogs in tow. Inevitably, a few of the pets must’ve broken away from human society and started living out in the wild, according to the theory.

Could Carolina Dogs be the descendants of those ancient free-roamers? Genetic analyses suggests that this is a distinct possibility. Naturalists usually encounter them in the swamplands of North and South Carolina, where the dogs live in wild packs. Certain attributes—both physical and behavioral—help the canines survive. For example, most specimens have fishhook-shaped tails with vibrant white undersides. The color scheme makes it easier for the dogs to send wagging signals to each other, which makes pack hunts easier. Also, this breed has some habits that are suspiciously wolf-like, such as their tendency to dig pits in the ground with their snouts.

Maybe such traits are the result of natural selection—several millennia’s worth of it. If so, then Carolina Dogs attained their current shape and temperament with little to no help from mankind. However, intriguing as this idea may be, some experts don’t buy it. As geneticist Ben Sacks points out, “the odds that they’ve been able to retain their genetic integrity for the last five to six thousand years while being surrounded by European dogs and haven’t interbred is not impossible, but it would certainly be remarkable.”

12. DANDIE DINMONT TERRIER

Dandie Dinmont Terrier
A Dandie Dinmont Terrier makes the rounds at Westminster Kennel Club's 131st Annual Dog Show in 2007.
TIMOTHY A. CLARY / Staff / Getty Images

The name of this breed—which first emerged near the Anglo-Scottish border in the 1700s—was coined a little over two centuries ago. People didn’t start calling them “Dandie Dinmont Terriers” until 1814 when Guy Mannering, a bestselling novel by Sir Walter Scott, was published. The book's main character Dandie Dinmont owned six long-bodied, short-legged dogs. Thanks to the book’s popularity (it sold 2000 copies in a single day), the breed was named in his honor.

13. BASENJI

Basenji dog
A Basenji dog perches on a branch
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Believe it or not, these quiet, small hounds can be used to hunt lions. A breed of central African origin, Basenjis are excellent jumpers with good eyesight and a strong sense of smell. Hunters originally bred them to flush out hidden game or pest animals. And, as the Masai hunters have learned, the tenacious pooches are good at irritating the King of the Jungle. When hunting lions, the Masai use Basenjis to track down the big cats and then goad them out of their dens—all without a woof. The hounds have flat larynxes that render them incapable of barking. This doesn’t mean they’re mute, though, as the canines have a distinctive yodel.

14. PORTUGUESE WATER DOG

Michelle Obama walks dogs Bo and Sunny
First Lady Michelle Obama walked Bo (left) and Sunny Obama at the 2014 Easter Egg Roll at the White House.
NICHOLAS KAMM / Staff / Getty Images

President Barack Obama gave the Portuguese Water Dog his seal of approval when the first family welcomed Bo Obama into their home in April 2009. Named by the first daughters, the puppy gained some canine company in 2013 with the arrival of Sunny, a second Portuguese Water dog. And with their high energy, it's no wonder the pets had their own demanding schedule while in the White House.

Intelligent, athletic, and hard-working, these animals need lots of stimulation—along with plenty of exercise. As its name implies, the Portuguese Water Dog is a talented swimmer. For centuries, European fishermen have been teaching them to retrieve equipment that’s gone overboard. A well-trained Water Dog can also corral wayward fish towards open nets.

15. CATAHOULA LEOPARD DOG

 Catahoula Leopard dog
Catahoula Leopard dog
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Deemed the official state dog of Louisiana since 1979, the Catahoula Leopard Dog has a murky past. Various historians have cited Native American dogs, Spanish “war dogs,” and Red Wolves as some of the Catahoula’s potential ancestors. Regardless, the protective, tracking dogs are beloved by hunters throughout the region. Webbed feet let them traverse Louisiana’s infamous swamps with ease, and many adult members of the breed have spotted fur that acts as camouflage.

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Big Questions
Why Don't We Eat Turkey Tails?
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Turkey sandwiches. Turkey soup. Roasted turkey. This year, Americans will consume roughly 245 million birds, with 46 million being prepared and presented on Thanksgiving. What we don’t eat will be repurposed into leftovers.

But there’s one part of the turkey that virtually no family will have on their table: the tail.

Despite our country’s obsession with fattening, dissecting, and searing turkeys, we almost inevitably pass up the fat-infused rear portion. According to Michael Carolan, professor of sociology and associate dean for research at the College for Liberal Arts at Colorado State University, that may have something to do with how Americans have traditionally perceived turkeys. Consumption was rare prior to World War II. When the birds were readily available, there was no demand for the tail because it had never been offered in the first place.

"Tails did and do not fit into what has become our culinary fascination with white meat," Carolan tells Mental Floss. "But also from a marketing [and] processor standpoint, if the consumer was just going to throw the tail away, or will not miss it if it was omitted, [suppliers] saw an opportunity to make additional money."

Indeed, the fact that Americans didn't have a taste for tail didn't prevent the poultry industry from moving on. Tails were being routed to Pacific Island consumers in the 1950s. Rich in protein and fat—a turkey tail is really a gland that produces oil used for grooming—suppliers were able to make use of the unwanted portion. And once consumers were exposed to it, they couldn't get enough.

“By 2007,” according to Carolan, “the average Samoan was consuming more than 44 pounds of turkey tails every year.” Perhaps not coincidentally, Samoans also have alarmingly high obesity rates of 75 percent. In an effort to stave off contributing factors, importing tails to the Islands was banned from 2007 until 2013, when it was argued that doing so violated World Trade Organization rules.

With tradition going hand-in-hand with commerce, poultry suppliers don’t really have a reason to try and change domestic consumer appetites for the tails. In preparing his research into the missing treat, Carolan says he had to search high and low before finally finding a source of tails at a Whole Foods that was about to discard them. "[You] can't expect the food to be accepted if people can't even find the piece!"

Unless the meat industry mounts a major campaign to shift American tastes, Thanksgiving will once again be filled with turkeys missing one of their juicier body parts.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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Animals
10 Juicy Facts About Sea Apples

They're both gorgeous and grotesque. Sea apples, a type of marine invertebrate, have dazzling purple, yellow, and blue color schemes streaking across their bodies. But some of their habits are rather R-rated. Here’s what you should know about these weird little creatures.

1. THEY’RE SEA CUCUMBERS.

The world’s oceans are home to more than 1200 species of sea cucumber. Like sand dollars and starfish, sea cucumbers are echinoderms: brainless, spineless marine animals with skin-covered shells and a complex network of internal hydraulics that enables them to get around. Sea cucumbers can thrive in a range of oceanic habitats, from Arctic depths to tropical reefs. They're a fascinating group with colorful popular names, like the “burnt hot dog sea cucumber” (Holothuria edulis) and the sea pig (Scotoplanes globosa), a scavenger that’s been described as a “living vacuum cleaner.”

2. THEY'RE NATIVE TO THE WESTERN PACIFIC OCEAN.

Sea apples have oval-shaped bodies and belong to the genus Pseudocolochirus and genus Paracacumaria. The animals are indigenous to the western Pacific, where they can be found shuffling across the ocean floor in shallow, coastal waters. Many different types are kept in captivity, but two species, Pseudocolochirus violaceus and Pseudocolochirus axiologus, have proven especially popular with aquarium hobbyists. Both species reside along the coastlines of Australia and Southeast Asia.

3. THEY EAT WITH MUCUS-COVERED TENTACLES.

Sea cucumbers, the ocean's sanitation crew, eat by swallowing plankton, algae, and sandy detritus at one end of their bodies and then expelling clean, fresh sand out their other end. Sea apples use a different technique. A ring of mucus-covered tentacles around a sea apple's mouth snares floating bits of food, popping each bit into its mouth one at a time. In the process, the tentacles are covered with a fresh coat of sticky mucus, and the whole cycle repeats.

4. THEY’RE ACTIVE AT NIGHT.

Sea apples' waving appendages can look delicious to predatory fish, so the echinoderms minimize the risk of attracting unwanted attention by doing most of their feeding at night. When those tentacles aren’t in use, they’re retracted into the body.

5. THE MOVE ON TUBULAR FEET.

The rows of yellow protuberances running along the sides of this specimen are its feet. They allow sea apples to latch onto rocks and other hard surfaces while feeding. And if one of these feet gets severed, it can grow back.

6. SOME FISH HANG OUT IN SEA APPLES' BUTTS.

Sea apples are poisonous, but a few marine freeloaders capitalize on this very quality. Some small fish have evolved to live inside the invertebrates' digestive tracts, mooching off the sea apples' meals and using their bodies for shelter. In a gross twist of evolution, fish gain entry through the back door, an orifice called the cloaca. In addition expelling waste, the cloaca absorbs fresh oxygen, meaning that sea apples/cucumbers essentially breathe through their anuses.

7. WHEN THREATENED, SEA APPLES CAN EXPAND.

Most full-grown adult sea apples are around 3 to 8 inches long, but they can make themselves look twice as big if they need to escape a threat. By pulling extra water into their bodies, some can grow to the size of a volleyball, according to Advanced Aquarist. After puffing up, they can float on the current and away from danger. Some aquarists might mistake the robust display as a sign of optimum health, but it's usually a reaction to stress.

8. THEY CAN EXPEL THEIR OWN GUTS.

Sea apples use their vibrant appearance to broadcast that they’re packing a dangerous toxin. But to really scare off predators, they puke up some of their own innards. When an attacker gets too close, sea apples can expel various organs through their orifices, and some simultaneously unleash a cloud of the poison holothurin. In an aquarium, the holothurin doesn’t disperse as widely as it would in the sea, and it's been known to wipe out entire fish tanks.

9. SEA APPLES LAY TOXIC EGGS.

These invertebrates reproduce sexually; females release eggs that are later fertilized by clouds of sperm emitted by the males. As many saltwater aquarium keepers know all too well, sea apple eggs are not suitable fish snacks—because they’re poisonous. Scientists have observed that, in Pseudocolochirus violaceus at least, the eggs develop into small, barrel-shaped larvae within two weeks of fertilization.

10. THEY'RE NOT EASILY CONFUSED WITH THIS TREE SPECIES.

Syzgium grande is a coastal tree native to Southeast Asia whose informal name is "sea apple." When fully grown, they can stand more than 140 feet tall. Once a year, it produces attractive clusters of fuzzy white flowers and round green fruits, perhaps prompting its comparison to an apple tree.

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