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Archaeologists Uncover 'Little Pompeii' Buried Beneath Ash in France

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Jean-Philippe Ksiazek, Getty Images

Newly uncovered ruins in France are drawing comparisons to one of the most famous archaeological sites of all time. Like Pompeii, the ancient Roman neighborhood discovered beneath the town of Vienne has been preserved beneath a layer of ash for nearly 2000 years, The Guardian reports.

Ground had just been broken on a 75,000-square-foot housing complex in Vienne, which is south of Lyon, when the discovery was made. After excavating the site, archaeologists saw it contained the remains of an entire district of a Roman village last inhabited during the 1st century CE. A series of fires appears to have swept through the town, driving out residents and destroying buildings. Whatever structures and objects survived the initial blaze were entombed in a protective coating of ash until they were brought to light earlier this year.

Archaeologist excavating ruins in Vienne, France.
Jean-Philippe Ksiazek, Getty Images

Among the debris, archaeologists came across the ruins of a home they believe once belonged to a wealthy merchant. The roof, balcony, and first floor have all crumbled away, but a tiled floor illustrated with mythological characters remains. Another mosaic they unearthed depicts Thalia, the muse of comedy, being kidnapped by Pan, the god of satyrs. In a different part of the site, a public building (possibly a school of philosophy) houses a fountain complete with a statue of Hercules. 

Archaeologist excavating ruins in Vienne, France.
Jean-Philippe Ksiazek, Getty Images

When it was overtaken by Rome in 47 BCE, Vienne became a communication center for the empire. Many impressive structures, including an 11,000-seat theater, are left over from the era, but the discovery of "little Pompeii" is in a category all its own. Lead archaeologist on the dig Benjamin Clement told The Guardian that it's "the most exceptional excavation of a Roman site in 40 or 50 years."

Archaeologists have been excavating the site since April and will have until the end of the year to recover the rest of the relics. Many of the pieces that have already been collected will be restored with plans to display them in Vienne's museum of Gallo-Roman civilization in 2019.

Archaeologist excavating ruins in Vienne, France.
Jean-Philippe Ksiazek, Getty Images

[h/t The Guardian]

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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
9.7-Million-Year-Old Teeth Discovered in Germany Have Scientists Puzzled
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Dave Einsel, Stringer, Getty Images

Scientists in Germany say they've found ape teeth that are surprisingly similar to the teeth of an early human relative dating to millions of years later. As the Independent reports, the team of experts unearthed a pair of 9.7-million-year-old fossilized teeth that, they say, have some of the same features as the teeth of the hominid Australopithecus afarensis.

Scientists from the Natural History Museum in Mainz found the fossils a year ago in nearby Eppelsheim but have waited until now to publish their findings—partly because they weren't sure what to make of the puzzling discovery. Of the two teeth, a canine and a molar, the canine tooth bears a striking resemble to that from "Lucy," one of the first known ancient human relatives to walk upright, who lived in Africa some 3.2 million years ago.

"They are clearly ape teeth," researcher Herbert Lutz told local media in a press conference. "Their characteristics resemble African finds that are four to five million years younger than the fossils excavated in Eppelsheim. This is a tremendous stroke of luck, but also a great mystery."

They dated the fossils using the remains of an extinct horse which was found buried in the same spot. In their paper, the scientists describe the canine’s similarities to other remains found in the lower half of the globe, but they still don't have answers to many of the questions the report raises. They plan to continue examining the teeth for clues. The public will also have a chance to see the teeth for themselves, first at a state exhibition this month, and then at Mainz's Natural History Museum.

[h/t Independent]

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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
Divers in Michigan Discover 93-Year-Old Shipwreck at the Bottom of Lake Huron
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On the evening of September 21, 1924, the cargo steamship SS Clifton met its end in Lake Huron while carrying a 2200-ton load of crushed stone from Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin to Detroit. The vessel was likely caused to sink by a gale, and the disaster resulted in the deaths of 25 crew members. Bits of wreckage were later found, but the freighter’s resting place ultimately remained a mystery. Now, more than 90 years later, the Associated Press reports that the SS Clifton’s location at the bottom of the Great Lake has been confirmed.

Scuba diver David Trotter—who’s reportedly located more than 90 Great Lakes shipwrecks—discovered the SS Clifton in September 2016, following a 30-year search. He waited to publicly share the news until his company, Undersea Research Associates, was able to investigate and document the steamship's remains last summer.

Trotter had spent decades searching for the SS Clifton, but finding it was ultimately a matter of serendipity, he says. In June 2016, Trotter and his team were surveying two wrecks—the schooners Venus and Minnedosa, which sank in 1887 and 1905, respectively—when they spotted yet another submerged ship. They logged its coordinates, but only managed to get a closer look several months later, in September 2016, during a quick dive trip.

GoPro footage confirmed that the ship in question was a whaleback steamer, a unique type of 19th century cargo steamship with low, rounded hulls, decks, and deckhouses, which were designed to cut down on water and wind resistance. “The Clifton was the only whaleback ship left in Lake Huron that hadn’t already been found,” Trotter said, according to WZZM-TV. “There was no question we had found the Clifton.”

The USS Clifton sits on its side, around 100 miles south of where some shipwreck hunters initially believed it had sunk. Its bow is shattered, likely from the collision with the lake’s bottom, while the stern, inside paneling, and architecture remain well-preserved. Divers also spotted an unopened suitcase, and signage inside the ship.

So far, there isn't any clear mechanical evidence as to why the USS Clifton sank, but Trotter's team did find “that the self-unloading mechanism was still in position,” he says. This was “an interesting discovery because we now realize that the unloading mechanism didn’t break free, causing the Clifton to have instability, resulting in her sinking.”

Trotter hopes to explore the USS Clifton’s engine room and cabins, and to bring the suitcase ashore to examine its contents. Until then, he can remain satisfied that he’s finally solved a mystery that had eluded him for much of his career.

[h/t Associated Press]

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