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Jean-Pierre Norblin de La Gourdaine, Hanging of Traitors, 1794
Jean-Pierre Norblin de La Gourdaine, Hanging of Traitors, 1794
ART Collection/Alamy

6 People Executed in Effigy

Jean-Pierre Norblin de La Gourdaine, Hanging of Traitors, 1794
Jean-Pierre Norblin de La Gourdaine, Hanging of Traitors, 1794
ART Collection/Alamy

In early modern Europe the justice system wasn’t quite what it is today, and there were times when a community decided someone was guilty of a crime even though he or she wasn't in custody—usually because they'd already escaped. To mollify the public (or royalty's) desire for revenge, in some situations a representation of an individual, crafted of straw or wood or in the form of a painting, would be "put to death" in their stead. Over the course of history many people have been executed in effigy, including these sorry six.

1. DON FELIPE, HERESY // SPAIN

During the Spanish inquisition a great number of convicted heretics who had evaded capture were executed in effigy to act as a warning to others. One such example was Don Felipe de Bardaxi, who in 1563 was executed in effigy in Saragossa, Spain, for “very great blasphemies and things resembling heresy of the Lutheran sect.” (In reality, his biggest crime was probably dealing in contraband horses.) Don Felipe managed to escape before being arrested, and eight years later the Saragossa tribunal annulled his sentence and he was "restored in honor and good reputation" in exchange for some religious penance—proving that it was lucky he had only been executed in effigy.

2. MARQUIS DE SADE, SEXUAL DEVIANCE AND POISONING // FRANCE

In 1772 the Marquis de Sade and his servant Latour engaged a number of young prostitutes in sexual excess, rewarding them with candies laced with the aphrodisiac Spanish fly. The prostitutes later fell ill and accused the Marquis of poisoning them. It was not the first time the Marquis had abused his position to fulfill his urges and an order was sent out for his arrest. De Sade and Latour fled to Sardinia, but meanwhile a court in France found the pair guilty of sodomy and poisoning. In a public show of their disgrace, straw effigies of them were beheaded and then burnt.

3. KAJ LYKKE, INSULTING THE QUEEN // DENMARK

Danish noble Kaj Lykke was an incorrigible ladies’ man, and around 1656 he started an affair with a servant girl. Gossip and cruel jibes soon beset the young girl and she broke off the affair, but not before Lykke had written to her to reassure her, noting that even Queen Sofie Amalie was being gossiped about for her affairs with her servants. The letter was to be his undoing. Sofie Amalie of Denmark was not a monarch to be trifled with, and unluckily for Lykke, his slanderous letter ended up in the queen’s hands after his relationship with the servant girl soured. Outraged by the slight, the royals ordered his death. By then Lykke, sensing danger, had already fled, and so desperate courtiers instead built a life-sized wax doll version of him in the hope that the queen would not be able to tell the difference. The ploy worked and the queen, watching from some distance, was pleased to see the punishment carried out—the doll had its hand cut off (the executioners making the doll appear to writhe in agony for effect) and then was beheaded. The effigy's head was then displayed on a spike as a warning to any other unruly subjects. After Sofie Amalie’s death Lykke smugly returned from exile, and reveled in the celebrity his “fake” death had created.

4. MARIE-ANNE LE BLANC, MURDER // FRANCE

Paintings were often used to represent criminals who had evaded justice and to take their punishment. In some cases artists were actually commissioned to paint a likeness of the guilty party being executed, but in other cases the painting itself was "put to death." This public showing of disgrace allowed the community to feel that at least some form of retribution had been meted out. In 1706 in Caen, France, Marie-Anne Le Blanc was found guilty in absentia of murder. The guilty party having fled, her abandoned house was searched and there a fine portrait of her was found. The painting of the murderer was put on display on a gibbet at the pillory for all to see, and after 24 hours it was publicly "executed" by burning.

5. PIERRE-PAUL SIRVEN AND WIFE, MURDER // FRANCE

During the religious schisms between Catholics and Protestants in 18th century France, Catholic leaders accused Protestants Pierre-Paul Sirven and his wife of murdering their daughter, who had been found drowned in a well. The evidence of murder, however, was scant—and the Sirvens fled to Switzerland, where Enlightenment philosopher Voltaire proclaimed their innocence and gave them sanctuary. Not letting the absence of the accused deter them, the local courts found the Sirvens guilty and on September 11, 1764 they burned effigies in their place. Voltaire continued to campaign for their innocence, and in 1771 Pierre-Paul returned to the town of Mazamet and was exonerated.

6. CORFITZ ULFELDT, TREASON // DENMARK

Corfitz Ulfeldt, known as Denmark’s most famous traitor, repeatedly plotted intrigues against the Danish monarchy. Ulfeldt was married to King Christian IV’s daughter, Leonora Christina, and enjoyed wealth and privilege, but this was not enough for him—he fomented rebellion against the Danish crown on several occasions. In 1663 Ulfeldt was convicted of high treason and sentenced to death, but he evaded capture. To sate the king's apparent appetite for his humiliation, a mannequin likeness of Ulfeldt was beheaded and cut into four pieces, and its head was then displayed on a spike for all to see. Ulfeldt did not get off scot-free, however, and a year later died in Switzerland in mysterious circumstances.

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Art
5 Things You Might Not Know About Ansel Adams

You probably know Ansel Adams—who was born on February 20, 1902—as the man who helped promote the National Park Service through his magnificent photographs. But there was a lot more to the shutterbug than his iconic, black-and-white vistas. Here are five lesser-known facts about the celebrated photographer.

1. AN EARTHQUAKE LED TO HIS DISTINCTIVE NOSE.

Adams was a four-year-old tot when the 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck his hometown. Although the boy managed to escape injury during the quake itself, an aftershock threw him face-first into a garden wall, breaking his nose. According to a 1979 interview with TIME, Adams said that doctors told his parents that it would be best to fix the nose when the boy matured. He joked, "But of course I never did mature, so I still have the nose." The nose became Adams' most striking physical feature. His buddy Cedric Wright liked to refer to Adams' honker as his "earthquake nose.

2. HE ALMOST BECAME A PIANIST.

Adams was an energetic, inattentive student, and that trait coupled with a possible case of dyslexia earned him the heave-ho from private schools. It was clear, however, that he was a sharp boy—when motivated.

When Adams was just 12 years old, he taught himself to play the piano and read music, and he quickly showed a great aptitude for it. For nearly a dozen years, Adams focused intensely on his piano training. He was still playful—he would end performances by jumping up and sitting on his piano—but he took his musical education seriously. Adams ultimately devoted over a decade to his study, but he eventually came to the realization that his hands simply weren't big enough for him to become a professional concert pianist. He decided to leave the keys for the camera after meeting photographer Paul Strand, much to his family's dismay.

3. HE HELPED CREATE A NATIONAL PARK.

If you've ever enjoyed Kings Canyon National Park in California, tip your cap to Adams. In the 1930s Adams took a series of photographs that eventually became the book Sierra Nevada: The John Muir Trail. When Adams sent a copy to Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes, the cabinet member showed it to Franklin Roosevelt. The photographs so delighted FDR that he wouldn't give the book back to Ickes. Adams sent Ickes a replacement copy, and FDR kept his with him in the White House.

After a few years, Ickes, Adams, and the Sierra Club successfully convinced Roosevelt to make Kings Canyon a national park in 1940. Roosevelt's designation specifically provided that the park be left totally undeveloped and roadless, so the only way FDR himself would ever experience it was through Adams' lenses.

4. HE WELCOMED COMMERCIAL ASSIGNMENTS.

While many of his contemporary fine art photographers shunned commercial assignments as crass or materialistic, Adams went out of his way to find paying gigs. If a company needed a camera for hire, Adams would generally show up, and as a result, he had some unlikely clients. According to The Ansel Adams Gallery, he snapped shots for everyone from IBM to AT&T to women's colleges to a dried fruit company. All of this commercial print work dismayed Adams's mentor Alfred Stieglitz and even worried Adams when he couldn't find time to work on his own projects. It did, however, keep the lights on.

5. HE AND GEORGIA O'KEEFFE WERE FRIENDS.

Adams and legendary painter O'Keeffe were pals and occasional traveling buddies who found common ground despite their very different artistic approaches. They met through their mutual friend/mentor Stieglitz—who eventually became O'Keeffe's husband—and became friends who traveled throughout the Southwest together during the 1930s. O'Keeffe would paint while Adams took photographs.

These journeys together led to some of the artists' best-known work, like Adams' portrait of O'Keeffe and a wrangler named Orville Cox, and while both artists revered nature and the American Southwest, Adams considered O'Keeffe the master when it came to capturing the area. 

“The Southwest is O’Keeffe’s land,” he wrote. “No one else has extracted from it such a style and color, or has revealed the essential forms so beautifully as she has in her paintings.”

The two remained close throughout their lives. Adams would visit O'Keeffe's ranch, and the two wrote to each other until Adams' death in 1984.

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presidents
George Washington’s Incredible Hair Routine

America's Founding Fathers had some truly defining locks, but we tend to think of those well-coiffed white curls—with their black ribbon hair ties and perfectly-managed frizz—as being wigs. Not so in the case of the main man himself, George Washington.

As Robert Krulwich reported at National Geographic, a 2010 biography on our first president—Washington: A Life, by Ron Chernow—reveals that the man “never wore a wig.” In fact, his signature style was simply the result of an elaborately constructed coiffure that far surpasses most morning hair routines, and even some “fancy” hair routines.

The style Washington was sporting was actually a tough look for his day. In the late 18th century, such a hairdo would have been worn by military men.

While the hair itself was all real, the color was not. Washington’s true hue was a reddish brown color, which he powdered in a fashion that’s truly delightful to imagine. George would (likely) don a powdering robe, dip a puff made of silk strips into his powder of choice (there are a few options for what he might have used), bend his head over, and shake the puff out over his scalp in a big cloud.

To achieve the actual ‘do, Washington kept his hair long and would then pull it back into a tight braid or simply tie it at the back. This helped to showcase the forehead, which was very in vogue at the time. On occasion, he—or an attendant—would bunch the slack into a black silk bag at the nape of the neck, perhaps to help protect his clothing from the powder. Then he would fluff the hair on each side of his head to make “wings” and secure the look with pomade or good old natural oils.

To get a better sense of the play-by-play, check out the awesome illustrations by Wendy MacNaughton that accompany Krulwich’s post.

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