25 Middle Children Who Did Big Things

Photo by Keystone/Getty Images
Photo by Keystone/Getty Images

Though children in the middle of the birth order may have a reputation for being "embittered wallflowers," experts have discovered that the stereotype is far from the truth. Instead, middle children tend to be empathetic, independent thinkers who don't feel the need to conform to societal norms. Still not convinced? We'll let these 25 middle children speak for themselves.

1. ABRAHAM LINCOLN

Honest Abe had an older sister, Sarah, who was more like a mother to him after their mother died when he was just 9 years old. He also had a younger brother, Thomas, who died at three days old. Sadly, Sarah and her infant died due to childbirth complications when she was just 20.

2. WARREN BUFFETT

An older man (financial guru Warren Buffett) in a suit, a red tie, and glasses has his leg crossed at the knee and is smiling slightly.
Bill Pugliano/Getty Images

The financial guru also known as the Oracle of Omaha is sandwiched between two sisters: Doris and Roberta. Doris now heads the Sunshine Lady Foundation, an organization that provides funding and opportunities for disadvantaged people. Roberta, or “Bertie,” who calls herself the “quiet one,” is also a philanthropist.

3. PRINCESS DIANA

Born Diana Frances Spencer, Princess Diana was the fourth of five children; she had two older sisters and a younger brother. (Another brother lived only a few hours after birth.) Prince Charles actually dated Diana's sister Sarah first, but there were no hard feelings: "I introduced them," Sarah later claimed. "I'm Cupid."

4. DAVID LETTERMAN

A smiling, bearded man (David Letterman) stands on stage wearing a suit and a striped tie.
Ilya S. Savenok/Getty Images for Peabody

The former late night host has an older sister, Janice, and a younger sister, Gretchen. Gretchen was a journalist at the Tampa Bay Times for 31 years.

5. BILL GATES

Another success story surrounded by sisters, Gates was born between older sister Kristi and younger sister Libby.

6. PEYTON MANNING

Peyton Manning, wearing a football jersey with a collared shirt underneath, smiles and waves.
Andy Lyons/Getty Images

You know about younger brother Eli, also a Super Bowl champ. But Peyton also has an older brother, Cooper, who hosts The Manning Hour on Fox Sports.

7. MARTIN LUTHER KING JR.

His older sister, Dr. Christine King Farris, was a professor at Spelman College and has written several books. His younger brother, Alfred Daniel, also an activist and pastor, drowned in his home swimming pool just 15 months after King was assassinated in 1968. Alfred was a strong swimmer—his family has since speculated that he was also murdered.

8. BRITNEY SPEARS

A blonde woman (performer Britney Spears) wearing a black choker necklace is smiling directly at the camera.
Photo by Jason Kempin/Getty Images for Clear Channel

You may know Britney's younger sister Jamie Lynn for her Nickelodeon sitcom Zoey 101 or for her work as a country music singer and songwriter. The Spears sisters also have an older brother, Bryan, who has produced various projects for his family.

9. JOHN F. KENNEDY

As part of the famous Kennedy clan, John was the second of nine children. The first, Joseph Jr., was being groomed for the presidency until he was killed during a WWII mission. JFK's younger siblings were Rosemary, Kathleen, Eunice, Patricia, Robert, Jean, and Ted.

10. MADONNA

The singer Madonna singing into a microphone on stage, wearing a black drapey costume and holding a black guitar.
Graham Denholm/Getty Images

She has two older brothers, Anthony and Martin, and three younger siblings—Paula, Christopher, and Melanie. Christopher worked closely with his sister for decades, but his 2008 tell-all book caused a rift between them.

11. CHARLES DARWIN

The father of evolution had three older sisters, one older brother, and a younger sister. He was exceptionally close with his brother Erasmus, known affectionately as "Uncle Ras" to Darwin's children.

12. DIANA ROSS

Singer Diana Ross, wearing a formal black dress with sheer sleeves, smiles and lifts her hair back as she stands in front of a  wall emblazoned with Grammy Awards.
Kevork Djansezian/Getty Images

Diana, the second of six children, isn’t the only star in the family: Her sister, Barbara, is a rock star in the medical field. Barbara Ross-Lee is known for helping to modernize the way physicians are educated, and has served as the dean of Ohio University College of Osteopathic Medicine as well as Vice President for Health Sciences and Medical Affairs and Dean of the School of Allied Health and Life Sciences at the New York Institute of Technology.

13. ERNEST HEMINGWAY

Hemingway was the second child of six: Marcelline was a year older than him, Ursula was three years younger, Sunny was five years younger, Carol was 12 years younger, and the baby of the family, Leicester, was 16 years younger. Sadly, Leicester followed in his older brother's footsteps and committed suicide at the age of 67.

14. MICHAEL JORDAN

Basketball player Michael Jordan, wearing a light blue, long-sleeved Carolina Football shirt with the Air Jordan symbol in the middle, sticks his tongue out and smiles in front of a crowd.
Streeter Lecka/Getty Images

The basketball legend is one of five kids: Three older siblings Larry, James, and Deloris, and younger sister Roslyn. According to their father, Larry was the son with the future in basketball—until Michael shot up five inches between his sophomore and junior year of high school. It's said that Michael chose the number 23 because he hoped to be even half as good as his brother, who wore number 45.

15. THEODORE ROOSEVELT

Teddy Roosevelt's older sister, Anna or "Bamie", raised his oldest daughter, Alice, when her mother died shortly after giving birth. Younger brother Elliott was the father of Eleanor Roosevelt, while youngest sister Corinne was a poet and writer.

16. CHARLOTTE AND EMILY BRONTE

A painting of three women with dark, curly hair sitting in a semi-circle and wearing dark, old-fashioned dresses.

National Portrait Gallery // Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Charlotte and Emily are the most well-known Brontës, thanks to their respective novels Jane Eyre and Wuthering Heights. Two older sisters, Maria and Elizabeth, died of tuberculosis within six weeks of each other. Younger sister Anne was also a writer who produced work under the male pen name Acton Bell. She died of tuberculosis at age 29. Between Charlotte and Emily was the sole Brontë brother, Branwell, a painter and writer who also died young of—you guessed it—tuberculosis.

17. MICHAEL JACKSON

The King of Pop's older siblings were Rebbie, Jackie, Tito, Jermaine, LaToya, and Marlon. His younger siblings were Randy and Janet. Brandon, twin to Marlon, was stillborn. All of the Jackson children were musically successful—in addition to the Jackson Five, each of them had at least one hit on the Billboard charts.

18. WALT DISNEY

A black and white photo of Walt Disney wearing a suit coat and smiling up and to the right.
R. Mitchell/Express/Getty Images

If you’re a Disney buff or even a casual follower of the Disney company, you probably know Walt’s older brother Roy, who was the financial brain behind Disney operations. Brothers Herbert and Raymond were also older than Walt; his younger sister was named Ruth.

19. MARK TWAIN

He was the sixth of seven children, though only three of his siblings survived to adulthood: Orion, Henry, and Pamela. Sadly, Henry Clemens didn't make it much beyond childhood—he died at age 19 after being badly burned when a boiler exploded on the steamboat Pennsylvania.

20. MARK ZUCKERBERG

Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg, wearing a dark blue suit and light blue tie, laughs as he stands in front of a pair of microphones.
Paul Marotta/Getty Images

Older sister Randi is the former Director of Market Development for Facebook; she's now the CEO of Zuckerberg Media and working on "a tech-driven pop-up dining experience" for children. He also has two younger sisters, Donna and Arielle.

21. GRACE KELLY

Actress and Princess of Monaco Grace Kelly had two older siblings, Margaret and John Jr., and a younger sister named Elizabeth. John Jr. was a four-time Olympic rower. He gave his bronze medal to Grace as a wedding present when she married Prince Rainier of Monaco.

22. MARTHA STEWART

Martha Stewart, wearing a tan collared shirt, stands in front of a textured background and smiles at the camera.
Theo Wargo/Getty Images

The second of six children, Martha brought several family members into her business. Her youngest sister, Laura, ran the day-to-day operations of Martha Stewart Living Omnimedia, while younger brother George, a contractor, helped remodel her home.

23. GEORGIA O'KEEFFE

Georgia was the second of seven children, three of whom were artists. Sisters Ida and Catherine sometimes exhibited works alongside their famous sister, but Georgia felt that neither of them lived up to their full potential. When Ida died in 1961 at the age of 71, Georgia told her family it was a wasted life.

24. JENNIFER LOPEZ

Actress and singer Jennifer Lopez wearing a black, ribbed turtleneck sweater and smiling.
Jamie McCarthy/Getty Images

J. Lo has an older sister, Leslie, and a younger sister, Lynda, who is an award-winning journalist.

25. SUSAN B. ANTHONY

The women's rights leader was the second-oldest of seven children—and nearly all of them were also activists. Brothers Daniel and Merritt worked for the anti-slavery movement. Sister Mary Anthony was also a suffragist and women's rights pioneer.

12 Things We Know About The Crown Season 3

Sophie Mutevelian, Netflix
Sophie Mutevelian, Netflix

Between the birth of Prince Louis, Prince Harry and Meghan Markle's wedding, and the Duke and Duchess of Sussex's announcement that they're expecting their first child in the spring, 2018 was a busy year for England's royal family. But the next big royal event we're most looking forward to is season three of The Crown.

Since making its premiere on November 4, 2016, the Netflix series—which won the 2017 Golden Globe for Best Drama—has become an indisputable hit. The streaming series, created by two-time Oscar nominee Peter Morgan, follows the reign of Queen Elizabeth II and the ups and downs of the royal family.

Now that you’ve surely binge-watched both of the first two seasons, we’re looking ahead to season three. Here’s everything we know about The Crown’s third season so far.

1. Olivia Colman will play the Queen.

Olivia Colman in 'The Crown'
Netflix

From the very beginning, creator Peter Morgan made it clear that each season of The Crown would cover roughly a decade of history, and that the cast would change for season three and again in season five (to more accurately represent the characters 20 and 40 years later). In October 2017, it was announced that Olivia Colmanwho just won a Golden Globe for Best Performance by an Actress in a Motion Picture - Musical or Comedy for The Favourite—would take over the role of Queen Elizabeth II.

When discussing her replacement with Jimmy Fallon, Claire Foy praised her successor, joking that "You'll forget all about me and the rest of the cast. You'll be like, ‘Who are they?' We're the warm-up act."

Though she might be best known to American audiences for her roles in Broadchurch and The Night Manager (the latter of which earned her a Golden Globe in 2017), Colman is no stranger to playing a member of the royal family. In addition to her award-winning role as Queen Anne in The Favourite, she played Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon—wife of King George VI and the mother of Queen Elizabeth II and Princess Margaret—in Hyde Park on Hudson (2012).

2. We may not seen a third season until later in the year.

While no official release date for season three has been given, the BBC reported that we wouldn't see Colman as Queen Elizabeth II until this year. But we could have some more waiting to do. The good news, however, is that Morgan confirmed they're shooting seasons three and four "back-to-back. I’m writing them all at the moment," he said in February. Meaning we may not have to wait as long for season four to arrive.

3. Tobias Menzies is taking over as Prince Philip.

Tobias Menzies in 'The Crown'
Sophie Mutevelian, Netflix

Between Outlander and The Terror, Tobias Menzies is keeping pretty busy these days. In late March 2017 it was announced that he’d be taking over Matt Smith’s role as Prince Philip for the next two seasons of The Crown—and Smith couldn't be happier.

Shortly after the announcement was made, Smith described his replacement as "the perfect casting," telling the Observer: "He’s a wonderful actor. I worked with him on The History Boys, and he’s a totally fantastic actor. I’m very excited to see what he does with Prince Philip." Of course, passing an iconic role on to another actor is something that former Doctor Who star Smith has some experience with. "It was hard to give up the Doctor—you want to play it for ever. But with this, you know you can’t," Smith told The Times.

For his part, Menzies said that, "I'm thrilled to be joining the new cast of The Crown and to be working with Olivia Colman again. I look forward to becoming her 'liege man of life and limb.'"

4. Paul Bettany came very close to having Menzies's role.

If you remember hearing rumblings that Paul Bettany would be playing the Duke of Edinburgh, no, you're not imagining things. For a while it seemed like the London-born actor was a shoo-in for the part, but it turned out that scheduling was not in Bettany's favor. When asked about the rumors that he was close to signing a deal to play Philip, Bettany said that, "We discussed it. We just couldn’t come to terms on dates really. [That] is all that happened."

5. Helena Bonham Carter will play Princess Margaret.

Honoured @thecrownnetflix

A post shared by Vanessa Kirby (@vanessa__kirby) on

After months of speculation—and one big hint via Instagram (see above)—in May 2018, Netflix finally confirmed the previously "all but confirmed" rumor that Helena Bonham Carter would play Princess Margaret in The Crown's next season. "I’m not sure which I’m more terrified about—doing justice to the real Princess Margaret or following in the shoes of Vanessa Kirby’s Princess Margaret,” Bonham Carter said of the role. “The only thing I can guarantee is that I’ll be shorter [than Vanessa]."

Like Colman, Bonham Carter also has some experience playing a royal: She played Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, a.k.a. the Queen Mother, in the Oscar-winning The King's Speech.

6. Princess Diana will notappear in season 3.

As The Crown moves forward, time will, too. Though fans worried that, based on the current time jumps between seasons, it would take another few years to see Princess Diana be introduced, Morgan told People Magazine that Princess Diana would make her first appearance toward the end of season three and that she will be heavily featured in the two seasons that follow. However, casting director Nina Gold later dispelled that notion.

"Diana’s not in this season," Gold told Vanity Fair. "When we do get to her, that is going to be pretty interesting." Charles and Diana did not meet until 1977, when the Prince began dating Diana's older sister, Sarah. According to Variety, season three will only cover the years 1964 to 1976.

7. Camilla Parker Bowles will be featured.

Lady Diana Spencer and Camilla Parker-Bowles at Ludlow Races where Prince Charles is competing, 1980
Express Newspapers/Archive Photos/Getty Images

As it’s difficult to fully cover the relationship between Prince Charles and Princess Diana without including Camilla Parker Bowles as part of the story, the current Duchess of Cornwall will make her first appearance in season three.

“Peter [Morgan]’s already talking about the most wonderful things,” The Crown producer Suzanne Mackie revealed during the BFI & Radio Times Television Festival in April 2017. “You start meeting Camilla Parker Bowles in season three,” she said, noting that they were then in the process of mapping out seasons three and four.

8. Buckingham Palace will be getting an upgrade.

Though it's hard to imagine a more lavish set design, Left Bank—the series's production company—requested more studio space for its sets at Elstree Studios in late 2017, and received approval to do just that in April. According to Variety, Left Bank specifically "sought planning permission for a new Buckingham Palace main gates and exterior, including the iconic balcony on which the royals stand at key moments. The Downing Street plans show a new Number 10 and the road leading up to the building itself. The sketches for the new work, seen by Variety, show an aerial view of Downing Street with a Rolls Royce pulling up outside Number 10."

9. Princess Margaret's marriage to Lord Snowdon will be a part of the story.

Vanessa Kirby as Princess Margaret in 'The Crown'
Alex Bailey/Netflix

Princess Margaret’s roller-coaster relationship with Antony Armstrong-Jones played a major part of The Crown’s second season, and the dissolution of their marriage will play out in season three.

“We’re now writing season three," Robert Lacey, the series’s history consultant and the author of The Crown: The Official Companion, Volume 1, told Town & Country in December. “And in season three, without giving anything away—it’s on the record, it’s history—we’ll see the breakup of this extraordinary marriage between Margaret and Snowdon. This season, you see how it starts, and what a strange character, a brilliant character Snowdon was.”

10. Vanessa Kirby would like to see Princess Margaret get a spinoff.

While Kirby, who played Princess Margaret in the first two seasons, knows that the cast will undergo a shakeup, she’s not afraid to admit that she’s jealous of all the juicy drama Bonham Carter will get to experience as the character.

“I was so desperate to do further on,” Kirby told Vanity Fair, “because it’s going to be so fun [to enact] when their marriage starts to break down. You see the beginnings of that in episode 10. I kept saying to [Peter Morgan], ‘Can’t you put in an episode where Margaret and Tony have a big row, and she throws a plate at his head?’ I’m so envious of the actress who gets to do it.”

Kirby even went so far as to suggest that Margaret’s life could be turned into its own series, telling Morgan, “‘We need to do a spinoff.’ You actually could do 10 hours on Margaret because she’s so fascinating. There’s so much to her, and she’s such an interesting character. I know that parts like this hardly ever come along."

11. Jason Watkins will play prime minister Harold Wilson.

At the same time Netflix confirmed Bonham Carter's casting, the network announced that BAFTA-winning actor Jason Watkins had been cast as Harold Wilson, who was prime minister between 1964 and 1970 and again between 1974 and 1976. "I am delighted to become part of this exceptional show,” Watkins said. “And so thrilled to be working once again with Peter Morgan. Harold Wilson is a significant and fascinating character in our history. So looking forward to bringing him to life, through a decade that transformed us culturally and politically."

12. Gillian Anderson will play Margaret Thatcher.

Gillian Anderson speaks onstage at The X-Files panel during 2017 New York Comic Con -Day 4 on October 8, 2017 in New York City
Dia Dipasupil, Getty Images

Ok, so this might be a fourth season tidbit—but it's still very worth talking about. In January 2019 it was announced that The Crown had cast its Iron Lady: former The X-Files star Gillian Anderson will play former Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in The Crown's fourth season.

12 Facts About Shirley Chisholm, The First African-American to Run For President

Library of Congress
Library of Congress

Being the first black woman to serve on Congress would be a significant enough accomplishment for a lifetime, but it wasn’t good enough for Shirley Chisholm. Three years after she arrived in Washington, D.C., Chisholm became the first woman to run for president for the Democratic party. When announcing her intention to seek the nomination on January 25, 1972, Chisholm stated, “I’m a revolutionary at heart now and I’ve got to run, even though it might be the downfall of my career.”

Though her campaign was controversial at times, it wasn’t the downfall of her long and noteworthy career. And she's still making headlines. In late 2018, Oscar-winner Viola Davis announced that she would be producing and starring in The Fighting Shirley Chisholm, a biopic chronicling Chisholm's amazing life. On January 21, 2019—nearly 50 years after Chisholm announced her presidential run—California senator Kamala Harris announced her own 2020 presidential run and unveiled her campaign logo, which pays tribute to Chisholm.

Here are a few things to know about this bold educator-turned-politician.

1. She had international roots.

On November 30, 1924, Shirley Anita St. Hill was born in Brooklyn, New York to Ruby Seale and Charles St. Hill. Her mother was a domestic worker who immigrated to the U.S. from Barbados; her father, a factory worker, was originally from Guyana.

2. She was born in Brooklyn, but had a slight English accent.

In 1928, Chisholm and her two sisters were sent to live with their grandmother in Barbados, while her parents stayed in New York and worked through the Great Depression. Chisholm attended a one-room schoolhouse on this island in the West Indies. In addition to receiving a British education, she picked up an accent, which remained slight but noticeable throughout her life.

3. Education had a significant impact on her life.


Library of Congress

Chisholm returned to the U.S. in March 1934 at age 9 and resumed with a public-school education. Following high school, she studied sociology at Brooklyn College and earned her BA in 1946. (She was a prize-winning debater in college, a skill that would serve her well throughout her political career.) She continued her education at Columbia University and earned an MA in early childhood education in 1952. While she was still a student at Columbia, she began teaching at a nursery school and married Conrad Chisholm in 1949. They would later divorce in 1977.

4. Her first career was as an educator.

After working at the nursery school, Chisholm worked her way through the teaching ranks and by 1953 was the director of two day care centers, a position she held until 1959. Her expertise and experience led to her role as an educational consultant for New York City’s Division of Day Care from 1959 through 1964.

5. Her political career was revolutionary from the beginning.

Chisholm was a member of the League of Women Voters and the Bedford-Stuyvesant Political League before she ran for the New York State Assembly in 1964. When she won, Chisholm became the second African-American woman to serve on the state legislature. From 1965 to 1968, Chisholm served as a Democratic member and focused on unemployment benefits for domestic workers and education initiatives.

6. Redistricting inspired her run for Congress.

Chisholm with Rosa Parks (L) between 1960 and 1970.
Chisholm with Rosa Parks (L)
Library of Congress

Chisholm set her sights on Congress when redistricting efforts gave Brooklyn a new congressional district. Not one to shy away from the public, Chisholm used to drive through neighborhoods while announcing, “This is fighting Shirley Chisholm coming through.” She defeated three candidates in the primary election, including a state senator, before defeating well-known civil rights activist James Farmer in the general election. This victory made her the first African-American woman elected to Congress, and she would go on to serve seven terms.

7. She had a way with words and established herself as outspoken and ready for change early in her first term.

She was known for her bold declarations. After her upset victory in the congressional election, she boasted, "Just wait, there may be some fireworks." And she delivered on that promise. Given her campaign slogan “Unbought and unbossed,” it should come as no surprise that Chisholm quickly made her presence known in Congress. She spoke out against the Vietnam War within the first few months of her arrival and said she would vote against military spending. When she was initially relegated to the House Agricultural Committee, she requested a new assignment, claiming that she didn’t think she could best serve her Brooklyn constituents from that position.

After directly addressing House Speaker John McCormack on the matter, she was reassigned to Veterans’ Affairs, and then moved to the Education and Labor Committee in 1971. True to her desire to bring about change, Chisholm hired all women for her office, half of whom were African-American. She was also a founding member of the Congressional Black Caucus as well as the National Women’s Political Caucus.

8. Her presidential campaign was unexpected and historic.

Chisholm formally announced her intention to seek the Democratic presidential nomination in January 1972, making her the first African-American to run for a major party and the first woman to vie for the Democratic nomination. During her speech, which she delivered in her hometown of Brooklyn, Chisholm said, "I am not the candidate of black America, although I am black and proud. I am not the candidate of the women's movement of this country, although I am a woman and I am equally proud of that...I am the candidate of the people of America, and my presence before you now symbolizes a new era in American political history."

Although her campaign wasn’t as well-funded as her competitors’, Chisholm did get her name on the primary ballot in 12 states and won 28 delegates in primary elections. She received about 152 delegates at the Democratic National Convention, coming in fourth place for the party.

9. The campaign trail was full of challenges.

Political buttons from the collection of Alix Kates Shulman
Political buttons from the collection of Alix Kates Shulman
Polly Shulman

Chisholm likely expected challenges during her campaign, and she certainly encountered a fair amount. She received multiple threats against her life, including assassination attempts, and was granted Secret Service protection to ensure her safety. Chisholm also had to sue to be included in televised debates.

There was even controversy where there could have been encouragement. Her decision to run for the Democratic nomination caught many members of the Congressional Black Caucus (CBC) off-guard, and they weren’t happy that she acted before a formal and unified decision could be made. But Chisholm was done with waiting; when the subject of the CBC came up on the night she announced her campaign, she told the crowd, “While they’re rapping and snapping, I’m mapping.”

10. She had an unlikely supporter in George Wallace.

Chisholm was well aware that her biggest source of support came from women and minorities and often advocated on their behalf, so it shocked many of her supporters and constituents when she visited political rival George Wallace after an assassination attempt sent him to the hospital—and ultimately left him paralyzed—in 1972. Wallace, who was governor of Alabama, was known for his racist comments and segregationist views, but Chisholm checked on him. She said she never wanted what happened to him to happen to anybody else.

Ultimately, their friendship benefited the public when Wallace came through for Chisholm on an important piece of legislation in 1974. She was working on a bill that would give domestic workers the right to a minimum wage. Wallace convinced enough of his fellow Southern congressmen to vote in favor of the bill, moving it through the House.

11. Following retirement, Chisholm didn’t slow down.

Chisholm retired from Congress in 1982, but leaving the political arena didn’t mean she was done making a difference. Although she planned on spending more time with her second husband, Arthur Hardwick Jr., she also returned to teaching at Mount Holyoke College in Massachusetts and continued to speak at colleges across the country.

Chisholm passed away on January 1, 2005 at age 80 in Ormond Beach, Florida. She is buried in Buffalo, New York, and the inscription on the mausoleum vault in which she is buried reads “Unbought and Unbossed.”

12. She continues to garner accolades for her trailblazing work.

Chisholm was inducted into the National Women’s Hall of Fame in 1993. In 2014, the U.S. Postal Service debuted the Shirley Chisholm Forever Stamp as part of the Black Heritage Series. A year later, President Barack Obama posthumously awarded her the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and now Viola Davis will star in a movie about her life. But Chisholm never doubted what legacy she wanted to leave behind, once saying, “I want history to remember me ... not as the first black woman to have made a bid for the presidency of the United States, but as a black woman who lived in the 20th century and who dared to be herself. I want to be remembered as a catalyst for change in America.”

An earlier version of this article ran in 2017.

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