10 Intriguing Facts About Joseph Lister

Hulton Archive/Getty Images
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Surgical patients once routinely died from their operations, as physicians believed that bad air—not bacteria—was responsible for their post-operative infections. This changed in the 19th century with a British physician named Joseph Lister (1827-1912), who dedicated his life to learning what caused infections and how to prevent them.

Get to know the quiet, studious doctor who is often called “the father of modern surgery"—and who has both a mountain and a popular mouthwash brand named after him.

1. JOSEPH LISTER'S FATHER HELPED USHER IN THE MODERN MICROSCOPE—AND HIS SON'S FUTURE CAREER.

As a child, Lister’s scientific curiosity was encouraged by his father, Joseph Jackson Lister, who was an English wine merchant and amateur scientist. The elder Lister's tinkering with early microscopes paved the way for today’s modern achromatic (non-color distorting) microscope—an accomplishment that would admit him to the Royal Society, the world’s oldest national scientific society.

In addition to dissecting small creatures, articulating their skeletons, and sketching the remains, the younger Lister—who knew from an early age that he wanted to be a surgeon—spent much of his childhood using his father's microscopes to examine specimens. He would rely on microscopes throughout his scientific career, using them to research the action of muscles in the skin and the eye, how blood coagulated, and how blood vessels reacted during an infection’s early stages.

2. LISTER WAS ENGLISH, BUT HE SPENT MOST OF HIS CAREER IN SCOTLAND.

Lister was born in the village of Upton, in Essex, England, and studied at University College, London. After graduating and working as a house surgeon at University College Hospital—where he became a Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons—the young doctor moved to Edinburgh, Scotland, to work as renowned surgeon James Syme's assistant at the Royal Infirmary [PDF].

The move was supposed to be temporary, but Lister ended up finding both professional and personal success in Scotland: He married Syme’s daughter, Agnes, and was eventually appointed Regius Professor of Surgery at the University of Glasgow.

3. HE THOUGHT ABOUT BECOMING A PRIEST INSTEAD OF A DOCTOR.

Like many young professionals, Lister sometimes had doubts about his career path. The physician received a devout Quaker upbringing, and at one point he considered becoming a priest instead of a surgeon. However, Lister’s father encouraged him to stay in medicine and serve God by helping the sick. Lister would ultimately leave the Quaker faith to marry Agnes Syme, who belonged to the Scottish Episcopal Church.

4. HE STRUGGLED WITH DEPRESSION.

While away at school, Lister came down with a mild case of smallpox. He recovered, but the health scare—along with the death of his older brother, who succumbed to a brain tumor—pushed him into a deep depression. The student left school in London and traveled around Britain and Europe for a year or so before returning to the university and pursuing his medical studies with renewed vigor.

5. LISTER IS THE REASON WE STERILIZE WOUNDS.

When Lister was a surgeon, bloodstained bed linens and lab coats weren’t washed, and surgical instruments were rarely cleaned. And even though Italian physician Fracastoro of Verona had theorized in 1546 that small germs could cause contagious diseases, nobody thought they had anything to do with wound infections. Instead, many surgeons believed that miasmas—or bad air—emanating from the wound itself were responsible.

Lister, however, trusted his own observations. As a young doctor-in-training, he noted that some wounds healed when they were cleaned and damaged tissue was removed. However, the problem of infection continued to plague Lister through his career until he encountered the work of French scientist Louis Pasteur, who discovered that microbes could cause infection.

Intrigued, Lister began using a formula of diluted carbolic acid—a coal-tar derivative used to kill parasites found in sewage—to sterilize medical instruments and wash his hands. He also applied this mixture to bandages, and sprayed carbolic acid in operating rooms where surgeries resulted in high mortality. He reported the results at a meeting of the British Medical Association in 1867: "my wards […] have completely changed their character, so that during the last nine months not a single instance of [blood poisoning], hospital gangrene, or erysipelas has occurred in them.”

While some physicians balked at his techniques, claiming they wasted time and money, Lister’s approach caught on. Soon, physicians in Germany, the U.S., France, and Britain were following his lead. As for Pasteur and Lister, the two scientists corresponded, and would finally meet in person for the first time in 1878. And at Pasteur's 70th birthday celebration in 1892, Lister gave a praise-filled speech about the life-saving benefits of Pasteur's research.

6. LISTER WAS KIND TO PATIENTS.

Lister referred to some patients as "this poor man" or "this good woman" (he refused to call them "cases"), and he always tried to keep them calm and comfortable pre-and post-operation. Once, the surgeon even sewed a doll's missing leg back into place for a young charge.

7. HE TREATED QUEEN VICTORIA ...

Lister's most famous patient was Queen Victoria: In 1871, the surgeon was called to the monarch's estate in the Scottish Highlands after the queen sprouted an orange-sized abscess in her armpit. Armed with carbolic acid, Lister lanced the mass, drained its pus, and dressed and treated the wound to prevent infection—but at one point, he accidentally sprayed his disinfectant in the displeased queen's face.

Lister would later joke to his medical students, "Gentlemen, I am the only man who has ever stuck a knife into the queen!"

8. ... WHO LATER MADE HIM A BARON.

As Lister's fame grew, Queen Victoria made him a baronet in 1883. Later, she elevated the physician to baron status. Lister would remain beloved among members of the royal family, including Edward VII, who was diagnosed with appendicitis two days before his royal coronation in 1902. His doctors consulted Lister before performing a successful surgery, and the king made sure to thank him once he was crowned. "I know that if it had not been for you and your work, I wouldn’t be sitting here today," the monarch told Lister.

9. LISTERINE MOUTHWASH IS—SURPRISE!—NAMED AFTER LISTER.

Even if you didn’t learn about Lister in science class, you’ve probably used his namesake formula: Listerine. The popular mouthwash brand—which is promoted with the slogan "Kills germs that cause bad breath"—was originally invented in 1879 by American physician Joseph Lawrence. Lawrence had created the green liquid as an alcohol-based surgical antiseptic, and he fittingly named the product after his pioneering predecessor. However, Listerine would ultimately be marketed for oral hygiene purposes, after first being peddled as a cigarette additive, a cure for the common cold, a dandruff treatment, and more.

10. LISTER ALSO HAS A MOUNTAIN NAMED AFTER HIM.

Lister has public monuments and hospitals dedicated to him around the world, but if you travel to Antarctica, you may also encounter a massive mountain named in his honor: At around 13,200 feet, Mount Lister is the highest point in the Royal Society Range, a mountain range in Victoria Land, Antarctica, that was first explored by the British during the Discovery Expedition from 1901 to 1904. This expedition was organized by the Royal Society and the Royal Geographical Society—and since Lister was the Royal Society’s president from 1895 to 1900, the range’s most majestic peak was named after him.

Additional Source: The Butchering Art: Joseph Lister's Quest to Transform the Grisly World of Victorian Medicine by Lindsey Fitzharris

A Dracula Ant's Jaws Snap at 200 Mph—Making It the Fastest Animal Appendage on the Planet

Ant Lab, YouTube
Ant Lab, YouTube

As if Florida’s “skull-collecting” ants weren’t terrifying enough, we’re now going to be having nightmares about Dracula ants. A new study in the journal Royal Society Open Science reveals that a species of Dracula ant (Mystrium camillae), which is found in Australia and Southeast Asia, can snap its jaws shut at speeds of 90 meters per second—or the rough equivalent of 200 mph. This makes their jaws the fastest part of any animal on the planet, researchers said in a statement.

These findings come from a team of three researchers that includes Adrian Smith, who has also studied the gruesome ways that the skull-collecting ants (Formica archboldi) dismember trap-jaw ants, which were previously considered to be the fastest ants on record. But with jaw speeds of just over 100 miles per hour, they’re no match for this Dracula ant. (Fun fact: The Dracula ant subfamily is named after their habit of drinking the blood of their young through a process called "nondestructive cannibalism." Yikes.)

Senior author Andrew Suarez, of the University of Illinois, said the anatomy of this Dracula ant’s jaw is unusual. Instead of closing their jaws from an open position, which is what trap-jaw ants do, they use a spring-loading technique. The ants “press the tips of their mandibles together to build potential energy that is released when one mandible slides across the other, similar to a human finger snap,” researchers write.

They use this maneuver to smack other arthropods or push them away. Once they’re stunned, they can be dragged back to the Dracula ant’s nest, where the unlucky victims will be fed to Dracula ant larvae, Suarez said.

Researchers used X-ray imaging to observe the ants’ anatomy in three dimensions. High-speed cameras were also used to record their jaws snapping at remarkable speeds, which measure 5000 times faster than the blink of a human eye. Check out the ants in slow-motion in the video below.

14 Facts About Celiac Disease

iStock.com/fcafotodigital
iStock.com/fcafotodigital

Going gluten-free may be a modern diet trend, but people have been suffering from celiac disease—a chronic condition characterized by gluten intolerance—for centuries. Patients with celiac are ill-equipped to digest products made from certain grains containing gluten; wheat is the most common. In the short-term this can cause gastrointestinal distress, and in the long-term it can foster symptoms associated with early death.

Celiac diagnoses are more common than ever, which also means awareness of how to live with the condition is at an all-time high. Here are some things you might not know about celiac disease symptoms and treatments.

1. Celiac an autoimmune disease.

The bodies of people with celiac have a hostile reaction to gluten. When the protein moves through the digestive tract, the immune system responds by attacking the small intestine, causing inflammation that damages the lining of the organ. As this continues over time, the small intestine has trouble absorbing nutrients from other foods, which can lead to additional complications like anemia and osteoporosis.

2. You can get celiac disease from your parents.

Nearly all cases of celiac disease arise from certain variants of the genes HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1. These genes help produce proteins in the body that allow the immune system to identify potentially dangerous foreign substances. Normally the immune system wouldn't label gliadin, a segment of the gluten protein, a threat, but due to mutations in these genes, the bodies of people with celiac treat gliadin as a hostile invader.

Because it's a genetic disorder, people with a first-degree relative (a sibling, parent, or child) with celiac have a 4 to 15 percent chance of having it themselves. And while almost all patients with celiac have these specific HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 variations, not everyone with the mutations will develop celiac. About 30 percent of the population has these gene variants, and only 3 percent of that group goes on to develop celiac disease.

3. Makeup might contribute to celiac disease symptoms.

People with celiac disease can’t properly process gluten, the protein naturally found in the grains like wheat, rye, and barley. Patients have to follow strict dietary guidelines and avoid most bread, pasta, and cereal, in order to manage their symptoms. But gluten isn’t limited to food products: It can also be found in some cosmetics. While makeup containing gluten causes no issues for many people with celiac, it can provoke rashes in others or lead to more problems if ingested. For those folks, gluten-free makeup is an option.

4. The name comes from 1st-century Greece.

A 1st-century Greek physician named Aretaeus of Cappadocia may have been the first person to describe celiac disease symptoms in writing [PDF]. He named it koiliakos after the Greek word koelia for abdomen, and he referred to people with the condition as coeliacs. In his description he wrote, “If the stomach be irretentive of the food and if it pass through undigested and crude, and nothing ascends into the body, we call such persons coeliacs.”

5. There are nearly 300 celiac disease symptoms.

Celiac disease may start in the gut, but it can be felt throughout the whole body. In children, the condition usually manifests as bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal discomfort, but as patients get older they start to experience more “non-classical” symptoms like anemia, arthritis, and fatigue. There are at least 281 symptoms associated with celiac disease, many of which overlap with other conditions and make celiac hard to diagnose. Other common symptoms of the disease include tooth discoloration, anxiety and depression, loss of fertility, and liver disorders. Celiac patients also have a greater chance of developing an additional autoimmune disorder, with the risk increasing the later in life the initial condition is diagnosed.

6. Some patients show no symptoms at all.

It’s not uncommon for celiac disease to be wrecking a patient’s digestive tract while showing no apparent symptoms. This form of the condition, sometimes called asymptomatic or “silent celiac disease,” likely contributes to part of the large number of people with celiac who are undiagnosed. People who are at high risk for the disease (the children of celiac sufferers, for example), or who have related conditions like type 1 diabetes and Down syndrome (both conditions that put patients at a greater risk for developing new autoimmune diseases) are encouraged to get tested for it even if they aren’t showing any signs.

7. It’s not the same as wheat sensitivity.

Celiac is often confused with wheat sensitivity, a separate condition that shares many symptoms with celiac, including gastrointestinal issues, depression, and fatigue. It’s often called gluten sensitivity or gluten intolerance, but because doctors still aren’t sure if gluten is the cause, many refer to it as non-celiac wheat sensitivity. There’s no test for it, but patients are often treated with the same gluten-free diet that’s prescribed to celiac patients.

8. It's not a wheat allergy either.

Celiac disease is often associated with wheat because it's one of the more common products containing gluten. While it's true that people with celiac can't eat wheat, the condition isn't a wheat allergy. Rather than reacting to the wheat, patients react to a specific protein that's found in the grain as well as others.

9. It can develop at any age.

Just because you don’t have celiac now doesn’t mean you’re in the clear for life: The disease can develop at any age, even in people who have tested negative for it previously. There are, however, two stages of life when symptoms are most likely to appear: early childhood (8 to 12 months) and middle adulthood (ages 40 to 60). People already genetically predisposed to celiac become more susceptible to it when the composition of their intestinal bacteria changes as they get older, either as a result of infection, surgery, antibiotics, or stress.

10. Not all grains are off-limits.

A gluten-free diet isn’t necessarily a grain-free diet. While it’s true that the popular grains wheat, barley, and rye contain gluten, there are plenty of grains and seeds that don’t and are safe for people with celiac to eat. These include quinoa, millet, amaranth, buckwheat, sorghum, and rice. Oats are also naturally gluten-free, but they're often contaminated with gluten during processing, so consumers with celiac should be cautious when buying them.

11. Celiac disease can be detected with a blood test.

Screenings for celiac disease used to be an involved process, with doctors monitoring patients’ reactions to their gluten-free diet over time. Today all it takes is a simple test to determine whether someone has celiac. People with the condition will have anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies in their bloodstream. If a blood test confirms the presence of these proteins in a patient, doctors will then take a biopsy of their intestine to confirm the root cause.

12. The gluten-free diet doesn’t work for all patients.

Avoiding gluten is the most effective way to manage celiac disease, but the treatment doesn’t work 100 percent of the time. In up to a fifth of patients, the damaged intestinal lining does not recover even a year after switching to a gluten-free diet. Most cases of non-responsive celiac disease can be explained by people not following the diet closely enough, or by having other conditions like irritable bowel syndrome, lactose intolerance, or small intestine bacterial overgrowth that impede recovery. Just a small fraction of celiac disease sufferers don’t respond to a strict gluten-free diet and have no related conditions. These patients are usually prescribed steroids and immunosuppressants as alternative treatments.

13. If you don’t have celiac, gluten probably won’t hurt you.

The gluten-free diet trend has exploded in popularity in recent years, and most people who follow it have no medical reason to do so. Going gluten-free has been purported to do everything from help you lose weight to treat autism—but according to doctors, there’s no science behind these claims. Avoiding gluten may help some people feel better and more energetic because it forces them to cut heavily processed junk foods out of their diet. In such cases it’s the sugar and carbs that are making people feel sluggish—not the gluten protein. If you don’t have celiac or a gluten sensitivity, most experts recommend saving yourself the trouble by eating healthier in general rather than abstaining from gluten.

14. The numbers are growing.

A 2009 study found that four times as many people have celiac today than in the 1950s, and the spike can’t be explained by increased awareness alone. Researchers tested blood collected at the Warren Air Force Base between 1948 and 1954 and compared them to fresh samples from candidates living in one Minnesota county. The results supported the theory that celiac has become more prevalent in the last half-century. While experts aren’t exactly sure why the condition is more common today, it may have something to do with changes in how wheat is handled or the spread of gluten into medications and processed foods.

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