Scorpions Use Acid and Protons to Make Their Stings More Painful

Mesobuthus martensii, also known as the Chinese golden scorpion.
Mesobuthus martensii, also known as the Chinese golden scorpion.
Dr. Shilong Yang

Scorpions are, like the rest of us, just trying to get by. Although, admittedly, the rest of us don't make highly sophisticated death-juice in our behinds. According to a new study, one species even uses acid to make its sting more painful. Scientists reported their findings in the journal Science Advances.

Venom is a little word that covers scores of different chemicals with different effects, each evolved to combat a certain type of predator or problem. Some are anticoagulants, which can cause death by blood loss. Some are neurotoxic, causing paralysis. Others cause excruciating pain—a fine deterrent for predators too large to be killed outright.

Scorpions in the Buthidae family make more than 100 different toxins, most of which we still don't understand. One such mysterious substance is a peptide called BmP01. The scientists who discovered this compound quickly figured out that it works by activating a pain pathway in the brain called TRPV1. It's the same one capsaicin uses to deliver a jolt of spice.

What they couldn't figure out was how BmP01 was so potent. Its effects on the brain were far more powerful than they should have been, given the teeny-tiny amount of the toxin a scorpion dispenses.

Something was beefing up BmP01's pain-producing powers.

Scorpion and rat face off
Dr. Shilong Yang

To find out what it was, scientists combed through the chemistry of the remaining components of Buthidae venom. One quality stood out: The venom was unusually acidic.

The researchers realized that the acid allows the venom to shed protons. Under normal circumstances, a high dose of protons can penetrate a pain pathway's defenses. Here, BmP01 and protons act together to activate the pain receptor, creating a stronger response—and more intense pain—than either could have done alone.

This "one-two punch approach" is a brilliant adaptation, the researchers say.

"Animal toxins delivered in this acidic package must have undergone optimization through evolution to better perform their biological functions," they write. "We suggest that, in addition to using a cocktail of toxins, bimodal activation may represent another general survival strategy used by venomous animals."

A Nubian Goat Named Lincoln Was Just Sworn in as the Mayor of Fair Haven, Vermont

iStock.com/Evgeniia Khmelnitskaia
iStock.com/Evgeniia Khmelnitskaia

Lincoln the goat may not be housebroken, but she had no problem winning the race for mayor of Fair Haven, Vermont. The new mayor was officially sworn in on Tuesday, March 12, and before signing the oath of office with her hoof print, she marked the occasion by defecating on the town hall floor, the Boston Globe reports.

Prior to getting into politics, Lincoln the droopy-eared Nubian goat lived a simple life. A local family looking for a way to maintain the unruly vegetation on their property had purchased her two years ago when she was 1 year old. At age 3, Lincoln transitioned from munching grass full-time to running for public office.

Though Lincoln's win is impressive, her election didn't involve beating any human candidates. Town Manager Joseph Gunter came up with the idea to hold an election for honorary pet mayor of Fair Haven as way to raise money for a new playground. For a $5 fee, local kids were allowed to nominate the pet of their choice to be town mayor. Lincoln bested more than a dozen candidates, including a gerbil named Crystal and a pacifier-sucking dog named Stella, for the position.

The stunt didn't raise much money—the town came away with just $100 for the playground—but it did earn Fair Haven international attention. In order to go down in history as world's longest-serving animal mayor, Lincoln has to stick around for a while; Stubbs the cat was mayor of Talkeetna, Alaska for 20 years.

[h/t Boston Globe]

The 10 Most Popular Puppy Names of 2019

iStock.com/Lakshmi3
iStock.com/Lakshmi3

If you brought home a new dog or puppy recently and named it Luna, you’re far from the only one. The name, which means moon in Latin, is the most popular puppy name for 2019.

This analysis of cute canine monikers comes from Trupanion, a provider of medical insurance for pets. The company looked at its database of 500,000 dogs and crunched the numbers to identify the names that are currently having a moment. (Although some of the names that cracked the top 10 list, like Daisy and Max, have been around for quite some time.)

Interestingly, Luna wasn’t always popular. As Trupanion points out, “Looking back 10 years, Luna was barely a blip on the name game chart … not even cracking the list of top 20 names.” Nor did it appear on ​Banfield Pet Hospital's list of the 10 most popular dog names of 2018.

Often, there's some overlap between popular pet names and baby names. Luna was the 31st most popular baby name for girls in 2018. This is perhaps linked to the popularity of the Harry Potter character Luna Lovegood, as well as the publicity the name has received in recent years from celebrities like John Legend and Chrissy Teigen and Penélope Cruz and Javier Bardem, as both couples named their daughters Luna.

Second on the list of popular puppy names is Bella (its longer form, Isabella, was the fifth most popular baby name for girls last year). Check out the top 10 list below to see if your pooch’s name is trending right now.

1. Luna
2. Bella
3. Charlie
4. Bailey
5. Lucy
6. Cooper
7. Max
8. Daisy
9. Bear
10. Oliver

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