Telegraph From the 'Lusitania' Has Been Recovered From the Ocean Floor

On May 7, 1915, the ocean liner RMS Lusitania was attacked by a German submarine on its way to Liverpool, UK from New York. The ship’s sinking and the 1198 deaths that resulted from it marked a pivotal moment in World War I. More than 100 years later, divers are still recovering artifacts from the wreckage.

As Atlas Obscura reports, the latest piece of the vessel to be brought to the surface is the telegraph used to send orders to the engine room. The first attempt to raise the object took place in July 2016 without an archaeologist present. Following a technical issue, the mission failed, and the telegraph sank back to the seabed off Ireland’s southern coast. This time around, an archaeologist from Ireland’s National Monuments Service supervised as divers recovered the item.

Telegraph recovered from Lusitania wreck.
Irish Ministry of Culture and Heritage

This is the second Lusitania telegraph to be brought ashore within the past year (the first was retrieved in October 2016). According to Ireland's Minister for Culture and Heritage Heather Humphreys, the artifact has fared well after a century on the seabed. "I am happy to confirm that this important piece of the Lusitania has now been recovered from the wreck off the west Cork coast. I understand that the telegraph is undamaged and in excellent condition," she said in a statement.

Telegraph recovered from Lusitania wreck.
Irish Ministry of Culture and Heritage

The wreck of the Lusitania was discovered in 1935, but recent salvaging efforts have been complicated by conflicts between American venture capitalist Gregg Bemis, who bought the wreck in 1982, and the Irish government. Bemis suspects the ship was delivering secret explosives from the U.S. to Britain when it was struck by a German torpedo and that's what led to its fiery demise. But to further investigate the theory he would need permission from the Irish government to cut open the ship's remains—something it has refused to grant thus far.

The newly recovered telegraph doesn't help solve the mystery, but it is an exciting find for archaeology buffs. Bemis plans to donate the telegraph along with other Lusitania artifacts to a local Irish museum.

[h/t Atlas Obscura]

The Fossil of a Human-Sized Penguin Has Been Unearthed in New Zealand

DurkTalsma/iStock via Getty Images
DurkTalsma/iStock via Getty Images

Penguins are known for looking cute and cuddly, but if the monster penguins of the Paleocene epoch were still around today, they might have developed a different reputation. As The Guardian reports, the fossil of a new species of one of these giant prehistoric penguins was recently discovered in New Zealand, and scientists say it would have gone head-to-head with many adult humans.

The bird, dubbed Crossvallia waiparensis, stood about 5 feet 3 inches tall and weighed about 175 pounds. For comparison, emperor penguins weigh up to 88 pounds and can reach 3 feet 8 inches in height. The prehistoric bird waddled the Earth some time between 66 and 56 million years ago—shortly after the mass extinction event that wiped out the dinosaurs and marine reptiles, which were probably its main predators.

An amateur paleontologist named Leigh Love discovered the creature's fossilized leg bones on New Zealand's South Island. From those fossils alone, a team of scientists from the Canterbury Museum in New Zealand and the Senckenberg natural history museum in Germany were able to estimate the penguin's height and weight and determine that it belonged to a previously undiscovered species. The large leg bones also indicate that the animal was more reliant on its feet for paddling through the water than the penguins of today.

Crossvallia waiparensis is massive by today's penguin standards, but it's not even the largest prehistoric penguin that we know of. When carnivorous reptiles began disappearing from the world's oceans, the waters opened up for new predators like penguins to flourish. Kumimanu biceae is estimated to have weighed about 223 pounds; Palaeeudyptes klekowskii may have weighed 253 pounds and stretched 6 feet 5 inches long.

[h/t The Guardian]

Scientists Are Creating a 3D Model of an 18th-Century ‘Vampire Witch’ Who Was Tortured to Death

Tonkovic/iStock via Getty Images
Tonkovic/iStock via Getty Images

In 2014, archaeologists uncovered a skeleton in Kamień Pomorski, Poland, with a brick wedged in its mouth and stakes driven through its legs. They believed the man was put to death in the 18th century because townspeople thought he was a vampire.

Now, genetic and forensic analysis has shown that the vampire burial site didn't contain a man at all: It was a 5-foot-6-inch, blue-eyed, blonde woman who was at least 65 years old when she died. Newsweek reports that scientists at the Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin, Poland are now making a 3D computer model of the woman’s skull, which they plan to use to recreate what her face looked like.

The Forensics Genetics Unit at the university will then build her face on a physical model from layers of plastic material and reveal it to the public within the next few months. Andrzej Ossowski, the head of the unit, told the website Science in Poland that he hopes a museum might display the rendering. “We want to show that with the help of modern methods, we are able to replace skeletons that are very common in museums with 3D models based on research,” he said.

He said that townspeople may have killed the woman because they thought she was a witch, and they gave her an “anti-vampiric” burial to prevent her from rising from her grave à la Nosferatu. The brick in her mouth was meant to weigh her down—in other burials a sickle might have been placed across the neck of the body, which would slit the revenant's throat should it try to rise.

We often think of Salem when it comes to witch trials, but they were common throughout Europe before the 19th century, and archaeologists have discovered “anti-vampiric” graves in Poland, Bulgaria, and Italy. Wondering if you might have qualified as a witch during the 17th-century period of Puritan paranoia? Find out here.

[h/t Newsweek]

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