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Telegraph From the 'Lusitania' Has Been Recovered From the Ocean Floor

On May 7, 1915, the ocean liner RMS Lusitania was attacked by a German submarine on its way to Liverpool, UK from New York. The ship’s sinking and the 1198 deaths that resulted from it marked a pivotal moment in World War I. More than 100 years later, divers are still recovering artifacts from the wreckage.

As Atlas Obscura reports, the latest piece of the vessel to be brought to the surface is the telegraph used to send orders to the engine room. The first attempt to raise the object took place in July 2016 without an archaeologist present. Following a technical issue, the mission failed, and the telegraph sank back to the seabed off Ireland’s southern coast. This time around, an archaeologist from Ireland’s National Monuments Service supervised as divers recovered the item.

Telegraph recovered from Lusitania wreck.
Irish Ministry of Culture and Heritage

This is the second Lusitania telegraph to be brought ashore within the past year (the first was retrieved in October 2016). According to Ireland's Minister for Culture and Heritage Heather Humphreys, the artifact has fared well after a century on the seabed. "I am happy to confirm that this important piece of the Lusitania has now been recovered from the wreck off the west Cork coast. I understand that the telegraph is undamaged and in excellent condition," she said in a statement.

Telegraph recovered from Lusitania wreck.
Irish Ministry of Culture and Heritage

The wreck of the Lusitania was discovered in 1935, but recent salvaging efforts have been complicated by conflicts between American venture capitalist Gregg Bemis, who bought the wreck in 1982, and the Irish government. Bemis suspects the ship was delivering secret explosives from the U.S. to Britain when it was struck by a German torpedo and that's what led to its fiery demise. But to further investigate the theory he would need permission from the Irish government to cut open the ship's remains—something it has refused to grant thus far.

The newly recovered telegraph doesn't help solve the mystery, but it is an exciting find for archaeology buffs. Bemis plans to donate the telegraph along with other Lusitania artifacts to a local Irish museum.

[h/t Atlas Obscura]

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A.G., Wikimedia Commons // GFDL
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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
Follow a Kayaker Through an Abandoned Shipwreck
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MV E Evangelia
A.G., Wikimedia Commons // GFDL

You don’t need expensive diving equipment and a scuba license to explore an abandoned shipwreck. As one adventurer shows, all you need is a kayak and a strong sense of curiosity.

According to Sploid, this video was filmed inside the rusted-out MV E Evangelia shipwreck in the Black Sea off the coast of Romania. The cargo ship sailed the seas from the time it was built in 1942 until it ran aground in 1968. Unlike most wrecks, the abandoned vessel remains fully visible above the shallow waters of its final resting place.

You can follow the amateur explorer through the boat’s interior in the video below. But if you ever come across a similar crumbling shipwreck in your travels, we don’t recommend venturing inside it on a whim.

[h/t Sploid]

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T. Fernandes, M. Liberato, C. Marques, E. Cunha
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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
Archaeologists Make Rare, Gruesome Find in Portugal
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Oblique cuts in the bottom third of the legs of a medieval skeleton found in Portugal.
T. Fernandes, M. Liberato, C. Marques, E. Cunha

In the small city of Estremoz, near Portugal’s border with Spain, archaeologists recently excavated three graves located at the edge of a medieval cemetery. They were intrigued by the graves' isolated location and odd burial style. Within, they found something shocking: All three people had amputated hands and feet.

Between the 13th and 15th centuries, Estremoz was an important village located between the kingdoms of Portugal and Castile. In the mid-13th century, Christians colonized the area, driving out the Moors. The famous castle of Estremoz, parts of which still stand, was built to house the royal court. The nearby cemetery of Rossio Marquês de Pombal dates to this period. It's on the edge of this cemetery that the archaeologists found the burials.

Writing in the International Journal of Paleopathology, researchers from the Universities of Évora and Coimbra describe the young to middle-aged men found in the graves with cut marks to their forearms and ankles. The cuts are clean through the bones but not quite at right angles, and appear to have happened just before or just after death. Even more interesting, the bones from the severed hands and feet were also found in the graves—but not in the right places.

Field drawing of the skeletons. The arrow points to one of the men's right hand lying below his left elbow.
T. Fernandes, M. Liberato, C. Marques, E. Cunha

In the case of a late-teenage male, both of his feet and his left hand were buried under his left hip, while his right hand was under his left elbow.

In another grave, they found evidence that one amputation took more than one try to complete. The man's right leg had a second set of cuts, likely inflicted after a failed first attempt to cut off his foot. The researchers think that a sharp implement such as a machete, sword, cleaver, hatchet, or axe was used to deliver the blows swiftly and with high force.

The archaeologists believe the cuts were made while the men were still alive—or very near death—and almost certainly restrained. Lead author Teresa Fernandes tells Mental Floss that “due to the absence of any artifact, we cannot state for sure that the feet were bound; yet considering the historical evidence, prisoners were normally bound with the legs straight while hung."

Why had the men been treated like this?

Generally, amputations occur throughout history as the result of a medical therapy, accident, ritual, intentional violence, or punishment. While there is evidence from the same cemetery for foot disease, these particular men had no other indications of problems with their bodies, meaning medical treatment can be ruled out. So too can ritualistic post-mortem amputation, since there are no historical or archaeological accounts of amputation of hands and feet after death. And their injuries were clearly not the result of an accident.

The researchers think these amputations were a punishment.

Historical records of amputations related to criminal cases are relatively rare. But medieval kings in the Iberian peninsula had the discretion to mete out capital punishment—including hanging, drowning, and even boiling someone alive—as they saw fit. They could also use mutilation as punishment. The researchers found one mention specifically of the amputation of both hands and feet of traitors during a civil war in 14th-century Portugal.

“These skeletons may represent the testimony of vigorous application of justice as an act of royal sovereignty in a peripheral but militarily strategic region,” Fernandes' team writes.

Other researchers agree with this interpretation. Piers Mitchell, a palaeopathologist at the University of Cambridge, tells Mental Floss that because "the amputations are all at similar locations, and are symmetrically placed on the limbs, deliberate amputation as a punishment seems the most plausible interpretation."

Lost to the ages, however, is what these men may have done to merit this extreme punishment. Execution "could be enforced in the event of treason, theft, making false currency, or myriad sexual crimes," Fernandes says. “But the form of execution isn’t stipulated by law."

Archaeological evidence of judicial amputation is extremely rare, according to Jo Buckberry, a bioarchaeologist at the University of Bradford who has done similar studies on ancient British skeletons. "The evidence of cut marks and the inclusion of severed hands and feet make this Portuguese case especially compelling,” she tells Mental Floss. Mitchell explains that often, "the extremities are absent in the graves of those who underwent amputation," which makes it noteworthy that these graves contained the spare body parts.

The fact that amputees were all young men also intrigues scholars. "This pattern has been seen in execution cemeteries in Anglo-Saxon England,” Buckberry says, “leaving us wondering if young men are more likely to commit crimes, or to be caught doing them, or if punishments are especially harsh for this demographic group."

These three unfortunate men may never tell us exactly what they did or who they are. But their bones show the most severe case of amputation as judicial punishment to date, revealing just one of the extreme penalties for committing a crime in medieval Portugal.

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