9 Behind-the-Scenes Secrets of Librarian of Congress Carla Hayden

Shawn Miller, Library of Congress
Shawn Miller, Library of Congress

Established in 1800 in Washington, D.C., the Library of Congress is the world’s largest library. Their Congressional Research Service helps members of Congress conduct research on U.S. laws and policies, but the public is also free to visit and browse items from the library’s impressive collection. The institution employs thousands of people, from curators and archivists to IT specialists, but only one person—the Librarian of Congress—is appointed by the president to oversee the entire operation. Today, Dr. Carla Hayden serves as the 14th (and first female and African-American) Librarian of Congress. Mental Floss spoke to Hayden to learn the ins and outs of her job as Librarian-in-Chief, from her work defending democracy to her love of the library’s spinach smoothies.

1. HER OFFICE VIEW IS KILLER.

Before becoming Librarian of Congress in 2016, Hayden served as the CEO of Baltimore’s Enoch Pratt Free Library, the president of the American Library Association, and deputy commissioner and chief librarian of the Chicago Public Library. But her current gig arguably has the biggest perks, including the view from her office window.

Located on Capitol Hill, the Library of Congress comprises three structures, known as the Jefferson, Madison, and Adams Buildings. “The Madison Building [is] where my day to day office is,” Hayden tells Mental Floss. “I’m facing the magnificent Jefferson building … and immediately to the left is the U.S. Capitol,” she says. “It really makes a wonderful visual synergy of those institutions.”

2. WATCHING MOVIES IS PART OF HER JOB DESCRIPTION.

Carla Hayden looking at a film reel with an expert at the Culpepper Library of Congress campus,
Hayden with an expert at the Culpeper campus.
Shawn Miller, Library of Congress

Although books and manuscripts are essential to the library, films are important, too, as documents that reflect American society, culture, and history. Each year, the National Film Preservation Board makes recommendations to Hayden for the 25 films that should be added to the National Film Registry, and she and members of the Film Board then make the final choices.

The library even has a separate building in Culpeper, Virginia—the Packard Campus—devoted to preserving culturally significant films, TV and radio shows, and sound recordings. “I got a chance to visit and spend the day there,” Hayden says. “I was able to see the different rooms that are used to preserve audio recordings and films. When I was there they were looking at Jerry Lewis’s home movies.”

The Packard Campus even hosts film showings. Hayden explains: “It has wonderful public programs in a magnificent film theater that is state-of-the-art with a pipe organ and even a popcorn machine.”

3. SHE LOVES EXPERTS.

Hayden’s duties require her to oversee the library’s massive collection—as well as its 3149 full-time staff members. “The Librarian of Congress works with a variety of people who are specialists in so many fields,” Hayden explains. “You have people who speak several languages, who are specialists in French literature or Lithuanian history. There’s such a variety of expertise and talent at the library.” Hayden adds that her favorite part of her job is working with the expert staff members. “Every time I interact with them, I learn a lot. You’re almost a professional student,” she says.

4. SHE READS ON HER COMMUTE.

Because Hayden lives in Baltimore, Maryland and commutes to D.C. for work, she sometimes uses her transit time for one of her favorite activities—reading. (Depending on her schedule and what’s happening at work, Hayden either drives or takes the train.) “Right now on the train, which I’ve been experimenting with even more, it [takes] an hour. And that’s a good time to read and reflect, and on the way home, relax,” she says.

Although Hayden says that she doesn’t have as much time as she’d like to devote to reading for pleasure, she admits that the line between reading for pleasure and reading for work can overlap. “Some of the reading that I’m doing for work—like more about the founding fathers and mothers—that is actually interesting [to me] because I’m a history and political science major from undergraduate,” she says. A few of Hayden’s favorite books include Bright April, a children’s book by Marguerite de Angeli, and The Historian As Detective by Robin W. Winks.

5. SHE APPOINTS THE U.S. POET LAUREATE AND OVERSEES COPYRIGHT.

Hayden’s duties are multifaceted: She appoints the U.S. Poet Laureate, helps choose the Gershwin Prize for Popular Song, and appoints the Register of the U.S. Copyright Office (located in the Library’s Madison Building), among other responsibilities. How does she choose the recipients of such lofty titles? By consulting with experts, of course. “The library is very fortunate to have wonderful advisory committees and people who help with different suggestions for [Poet Laureate and Gershwin Prize] selections,” she says.

As for copyright, Hayden says: “The Register is responsible for managing the process of copyright and also for advising Congress on the legal aspects of copyright.” Hayden also makes sure the Copyright Office has the resources it needs so that it is run efficiently. “The Librarian does not advise on the legal aspects—that’s the expertise of the Register,” she says.

6. SHE WANTS TO MAKE BEING A LIBRARIAN COOL.

In an interview with CBS This Morning in 2016, Hayden explained one of her goals as Librarian of Congress: “We want to make sure that history is fun and people see the [librarian] profession as something that is desirable.”

Part of making history fun is making it accessible to millions of people, whether they’re able to visit the library or not. One way to modernize the library is to use social media to connect with people around the U.S.—and world. “I am the first Librarian [of Congress] to tweet, and since my swearing in I have 10,000 followers,” she told CBS. Today, she has more than 45,000 followers.

7. SHE LOVED HER SWEARING-IN CEREMONY.

Carla Hayden at her swearing-in ceremony
Shawn Miller, Library of Congress

In September 2016, Supreme Court Chief Justice John Roberts delivered an oath to Hayden as Speaker Paul Ryan and Hayden's mother stood beside her. As Hayden explains, the support from her soon-to-be staff is what stands out for her about her swearing-in ceremony: “There were so many staff members who were there in the mezzanine section, in particular, and they were clapping and cheering and had a welcome sign. That was such a wonderful feeling to know that the staff members were enthusiastic,” she says. Hayden fondly recalls meeting approximately 400 staff members who came to her ceremony. “It was really something. That was a big hearty welcome. I was really touched.”

8. SHE ENJOYS THE LIBRARY’S SPINACH SMOOTHIES.

People think of the library as a scholarly place, with its reading rooms, exhibits, and guided tours. But librarians and library visitors have to eat, too. The library offers several dining options, including the Madison Café, Jefferson Coffee Shop, and Madison Snack Bar (with a Subway and Dunkin Donuts). And if you visit the library and stop to have lunch, you might just run into the Librarian-in-Chief. “I love the Madison Café,” Hayden says. “There’s a Korean bowl that I’m pretty partial to, and now I’m doing the spinach smoothie. The variety is really good and you can bump into a Congressperson or staffer. It’s a nice cafeteria.”

9. HER JOB HELPS HER DEFEND DEMOCRACY.

In a 2016 interview with PBS NewsHour, Hayden explained that because libraries promote literacy and let everyone access information, they affirm freedom, democracy, and equality. “Libraries are a cornerstone of democracy—where information is free and equally available to everyone,” Hayden has said.

The Library of Congress also strives to be a role model for all libraries, serving as an example of how libraries can bolster freedom of thought, bring books into the digital age, and help people access valuable information.“Health information is just about the number one thing that people go into public libraries and connect to public libraries for. They’re also looking for information about things that can make their lives better,” Hayden tells PBS. “It’s a great equalizer.”

14 Secrets of Cruise Ship Workers

iStock/Remus Kotsell
iStock/Remus Kotsell

From an outsider’s perspective, working on a cruise ship might seem like a dream job. What could be more glamorous than getting paid to travel the world by sea, without having to pay for housing or food? But as with many “dream” jobs, there are a few significant downsides to consider before you fill out an application. We spoke to a few cruise ship employees about what it’s like to live and work on a floating hotel.

1. Americans are the worst cruise workers.

On most large cruise liners, the majority of staff and crew are not American. “On any given contract, you’re working with about 64 nationalities,” says Kat, who spent three years working for a major cruise line. There are a number of possible drivers behind this statistic, but one is that cruise ship employees work really long hours and almost never get a day off, which isn’t particularly appealing to Americans used to a 40-hour workweek and relaxing on weekends. “On my worst contract, I was working close to 300 hours a month,” Kat says. “Yeah, you might be in beautiful places, but you’re so tired sometimes you don’t even want to go out and explore. A lot of times they won’t even hire Americans because the rate of people quitting is so high.”

Americans are also more expensive to employ, even if they do the same work as their counterparts from developing countries. Sam, who worked on Princess Cruises for two years, says her monthly salary of $1100 was higher than that of her Filipino boss. According to Sam, the official reason the ship gave was that the dollar is worth more to people from developing countries than it is to Americans.

2. Cruise ship workers are trained for pirate attacks.

It’s rare for pirates to take on a massive cruise ship, but it can happen, and if it does, the crew is prepared. Nolan, who worked for both Princess Cruises and Oceania Cruises, says he was trained to get all guests away from windows and spray the intruders with giant water cannons.

“Our ship can totally outrun their little dinghies,” he says. “We could spray them with water and they’d be helpless.” Other ships may be equipped with Long Range Acoustic Devices that emit loud, painful noises to deter attacks. That’s how a luxury cruise liner escaped a pirate attack off the coast of Africa in 2005.

3. Want to lose weight? Work on a cruise liner.

While passengers are feasting on steak and scrumptious seafood, the staff and crew aren’t so lucky. “Imagine eating at your high-school cafeteria three meals a day, seven days a week for a year,” writes one former cruise ship worker on Reddit. Kat recalls strange offerings like goat foot stew. The unappetizing food, combined with the many hours spent running the length of the ship, often mean crew members lose a significant amount of weight during their time at sea. “I would lose about 10 to 12 pounds per contract,” Kat says.

Gavin, who worked as a waiter for a major cruise line, said the crew would occasionally get treated to whatever leftovers remained from the passenger buffet, but “it would disappear so fast.”

4. Crew members sometimes mess with passengers.

Life at sea can get a bit monotonous. “It got mundane really fast,” writes one former worker on Reddit. “It was basically the same comedy of errors each day of the week, with a different ‘cast’ of passengers each week.”

Some crew members shake things up by getting a rise out of passengers in the form of good old practical jokes. According to another former crew member, “a favorite was while in a passenger area say to another crew member, loud enough to be heard by passengers, ‘Meet you in the bowling alley tonight!’” Of course, there wasn’t actually a bowling alley on board. “Then we'd wait for the comment cards to come in: ‘Why do crew get a bowling alley when we don't?’”

5. … and chance are the workers might be drunk.

When they’re not working, employees are probably drinking and partying. “We partied our asses off,” Gavin says. “We joked about how it makes a frat house look like a monastery.” The staff get their own designated watering holes on board, referred to as the crew bars, where the drinks are dirt cheap. “At the passenger bars they were charging like $15 for a drink and we’d go down into the crew bar and you could get a beer or mixed drinks for $1.25,” Sam says.

And what happens when you give copious amounts of cheap alcohol to people who are cooped up together for months at a time? “It seems like a cliche, but everyone was hooking up with each other,” Sam says. “In a lot of the crew areas there were these huge posters about STD prevention.”

The crew is regularly threatened with the possibility of random breathalyzer tests (and drug testing), but even this isn’t always enforced. “There was a strict limit on our ship of no more than .04 blood alcohol content at any time,” Gavin says, “but as long as you didn’t make a fool of yourself, you wouldn’t get randomly breathalyzed, so people would break that rule all the time.”

6. For the crew, hooking up with guests on the cruise is strictly forbidden.

So you spotted a cute crew member on your ship and are thinking of chatting them up? Good luck with that. Having sexual relations with a guest is one of the fastest ways for a crew member to get fired. This is mainly to protect the cruise line from reputation-damaging accusations of abuse. Ship security keeps a close eye on crew members day and night. That doesn’t mean hookups never happen, but if a crew member is caught in the act with a guest, they’re kicked off the ship at the next port.

7. Crew passengers are almost always being watched.

“It is safe to assume if you are outside of your cabin you are probably on camera,” Gavin says. “In the event of any kind of emergency, they could pull security footage at any time.”

8. Passengers have a lot of power over how much the crew gets paid.

At the end of a journey, you might be asked to rate your experience and share any praise or complaints on a comment card. These reviews are taken very seriously and often translate directly into salaries and bonuses for workers. “For most people, their salaries are quite low and they rely on those bonuses,” Kat says. So if you leave a bad review and mention someone by name, you can be sure they’ll feel the impact on their paycheck.

“The very best thing you can do for a crew member is to write a glowing review, mentioning them specifically on your comment card,” says a former cruise worker on Reddit. “Their superior’s superiors take note of that.”

9. Some cruise workers have double lives.

“You get a lot of married people that have their own separate lives on the cruise ship,” Kat says. “I’ve worked with couples that have wives at home and a whole different relationship while they’re on the cruise ship. It’s kind of like a don’t-ask-don’t-tell policy.”

Gavin says one of his fellow employees lived as an out-of-the-closet gay man while on board, but was still closeted on land.

10. They have no idea what’s going on in the world.

“You stop following news and sports and pop culture,” Gavin says. “You’re really kind of isolated out there.” It can be difficult (and expensive) to find an internet connection while at sea, so many ship workers completely lose track of current events while on contract.

11. They speak in code.

Crew members have shorthand codes for everything from fires to medical emergencies, which they can announce over the loudspeaker without alarming passengers.

Code Adam: a child is missing
Code Alpha: there’s a medical emergency
Code Oscar: man overboard
Code Bravo: fire on the ship

12. The cruise ship has many mafias.

But not the kind that will make you an offer you can’t refuse. According to Sam, the crew members on her ship were split into “mafias” based on their country of origin, and each mafia dealt in specific goods. For example, the Indian mafia was in charge of getting good food for the crew parties, she says. Because Sam worked in the youth center, she was tasked with providing art supplies for crew costume parties. “That’s just one of the economies of the ship,” Sam says. “Everyone is always trying to figure out what they can get from another person.”

One former cruise ship worker says the Filipino mafia was known for getting good booze at all hours. “If you wanted anything after hours, they would get it for you! The crew bar would close around 1 or 2. If you wanted to keep drinking, but were out of booze, you would just go to the Filipino mafia and get what you needed. You paid a huge markup obviously, but it was still pretty cool!”

13. There’s a morgue on board.

Roughly 200 people die on cruise ships every year, and cruise lines need some place to store the bodies safely until they get back to shore. As a result, many ships have small morgues on board that can hold five or six bodies. “We definitely had a morgue on board,” one former ship employee told me. “Because the line was for older demographics, we had people die on the ship pretty regularly.”

14. They will leave you behind.

If you leave the ship for an on-land excursion, make sure you get back before departure time. Cruise lines pay massive fines if they overstay their port time, so chances are high the ship will leave without you if you’re running behind. “You’re on your own,” Kat says. “They won’t wait.”

This list first ran in 2016 and was republished in 2019.

14 Things You Might Not Know About Sephora

iStock/RiverNorthPhotography
iStock/RiverNorthPhotography

It’s the store that’s all about that face … and nails, and skin. Makeup mecca Sephora was first born as a perfumery in 1969. French business owner Dominique Mandonnaud wanted to remove fragrances from behind the counter and allow customers to touch, smell, and spritz on the scents. Three-plus decades later, the cosmetics juggernaut—which is currently in the news for shutting down its stores for an hour today (June 5) to host diversity and inclusivity workshops for all of its 16,000 employees—employs the same client-first philosophy. (Did you know you could get a free 15-minute makeup service at any location?) Try on these other facts.

1. BEAUTY IS (SORT OF) IN THE NAME.

The official line is that Sephora originates from the Greek word sephos (which the company claims means "beauty") and the name Zipporah—she was Moses’ exceptionally pretty wife in the Book of Exodus. Not everyone buys this explanation, however, noting that "sephos" is nothing like the ancient Greek word for "beauty" or "beautiful."

2. IT'S A TOURIST DESTINATION.

The exterior of Sephora's Paris flagship
iStock/serts

Approximately 6 million cosmetics-seekers stroll through the company’s Parisian flagship store on the Champs-Élysées every year. That’s almost as many annual visitors as the Eiffel Tower receives.

3. CHANGED YOUR MIND ABOUT A PRODUCT? THAT'S COOL!

Stores will take back makeup—even opened products!—within 60 days of purchase. Employees admit it’s often heartbreaking for them to have to trash barely-used makeup.

4. SHOPPERS CAN SCORE TONS OF PERKS …

Along with complimentary mini makeovers, stores offer a 45-minute session when customers spend $50, and a 90-minute consultation (it includes a makeover and personal shopping session) when they shell out $125. The company’s (free) Beauty Insider program also has its benefits. Signing up means you can attend any beauty class gratis and each dollar you spend nets you a point that you can use towards fun gifts. (In some cases, they’ll even let you go into a negative points balance to score the product.)

The company also tracks your purchases to give you recommendations for other products. (Bridget Dolan, VP of Interactive Media, told Forbes that 80 percent of their transactions “run through our loyalty program.”)  Spending $350 a year catapults you to VIB (Very Important Beauty Insider) status and gains you access to private shopping events and first dibs on new products. Shell out $1,000 annually and you get Rouge Status—that means free two-day shipping on all orders, unlimited in-store makeovers, and invites to chic store events. At one, VIBs got the chance to meet Jennifer Aniston!

5. … AND MORE SAMPLES THAN THEY KNOW WHAT TO DO WITH.

Sephora employees are told that customers shouldn’t leave without new products to try. That means you can get a trial size of just about every product they carry. (Most makeup products can be tested in-store and they’ll pour any liquid product, such as a night cream or fragrance, into a sample-size vial.) The general rule, say employees, is that customers are entitled to three samples each trip. Shopping online? Each purchase comes with a choice of three freebies. And while the store rarely has sales, you can score big at the site’s Beauty Deals section.

6. GETTING A SPECIFIC PRODUCT RECOMMENDATION CAN BE TRICKY.

Employees aren’t allowed to refer shoppers to particular brands. So instead of asking for their favorite lip shade, it’s smarter to ask which lip products perform the best. (Translation: What are other shoppers buying and not returning?)

7. NEED THE PERFECT FOUNDATION? THEY HAVE AN APP FOR THAT.

Okay, well, it’s a device. The handheld Color IQ scans the surface of your skin and then finds the scientifically precise foundation—there are 1,500 options—for your visage. To create the library, the Pantone Color Institute researched and mapped out 110 different skin tones.  

8. THEY HAVE THEIR OWN LANGUAGE.

Women shop for makeup at Sephora
iStock/wdstock

Each store is divided into three distinct “worlds”: fragrance, skincare and color. In a 2008 interview with Jezebel, one employee spilled on the lingo. The sales floor is known as the “stage” (which makes everything else “backstage”), employees are called “cast members,” and managers are dubbed “directors.” As for the required all-black outfits, they’re not uniforms, they’re “costumes.”

9. EMPLOYEES REALLY ARE BEAUTY EXPERTS …

Some cast members undergo a month of intensive, all-day training at the company’s beauty school, Science of Sephora. There, according to the company’s website, they learn about “skin physiology, the history of makeup, application techniques, the science of creating fragrances, and most importantly, how to interact with Sephora’s diverse clientele.”

10. … AND THEIR MEDICINE CABINETS ARE STOCKED.

A woman stands in front of a makeup display in Sephora
iStock/arinahabich

Employees have said working at Sephora means constantly receiving new products from companies to try out. A particularly good sales day can also net a salesperson a “gratis ticket” from their manager. Plus, there’s the 20 percent employee discount that jumps up to 30 percent during the holiday season.

11. LOOKING GOOD IS A REQUIREMENT.

Part of the employee handbook: thou shall embrace eyeliner. Cast members are told to wear a certain amount of makeup while working.

12. THEY'RE WARY OF RESALE.

One cast member says they limit people from buying more than six identical items (unless they offer a good reason, such as bridal party gifts). Explains the employee, “This is to discourage people reselling our products at their own establishments.”

13. UNPOPULAR PRODUCTS USUALLY GET THE BOOT.

Stores keep lists of the products that get returned most often, and the products that don’t work are phased out over time. While it's hard to nail down an official list of frequently-returned goods, individual employees will occasionally open up about the company's most loathed and/or most misunderstood makeup.

14. SEPHORA'S APPEAL IS WIDE.

Susan Sontag at an event in Weimar, Germany in 2002
Susan Sontag
JENS-ULRICH KOCH/AFP/Getty Images

In 2014, the L.A. Review of Books dug through the contents of a Power Mac G4 once owned by Susan Sontag and discovered the famed author was on Sephora’s Beauty Insider mailing list.

A version of this article first ran in 2015. It was updated in 2019.

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