How Dangerous Is a Concussion?

iStock
iStock

It's not football season, but the game is still making headlines: In a new study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association, neuropathologist Ann McKee and her colleagues examined the brains of 111 N.F.L. players and found 110 of them to have the degenerative disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE).

The condition has been linked to repeated blows to the head—and every year in the U.S., professional and novice athletes alike receive between 2.5 and 4 million concussions. This raises the question: What happens to the human brain when we get a concussion or suffer a hard blow to the head, and how dangerous are these hits to our long-term health?

Expert Clifford Robbins explains in the TED-Ed video below:

How to Tell If Your Dog's Panting is Abnormal

iStock/Nevena1987
iStock/Nevena1987

​It's not abnormal for dogs to pant. Whether it's because it's a hot day or they're nervous about something like thunder, there are various and totally normal reasons why our furry friends might breathe a little heavier on occasion. Which makes it difficult to tell when it's normal and when it's something to be concerned about. Here are some reasons why dogs pant and ways to know if the panting is serious, according to ​WebMD.

EXERCISE

If your dog is partaking in some heavy exercise, such as playing with you or another pet, it's normal for them to pant a bit. Dogs normally take between 10 and 30 breaths per minute (depending on the breed), so it's important to take notice just how hard they're really panting. If the panting goes on for longer than you'd expect, and often, it's a smart idea to get them checked out by your vet.

HEAT

If it's particularly hot outside and your dog is panting, it's best to get them water and bring them inside. Dogs do not sweat like humans, and obviously cannot communicate to us with words. Panting is their way of telling you: Let's go back inside. When heat levels are extremely high, it's best to err on the safe side and keep them indoors entirely. And never, ever leave your dog in a hot car—even if it's "just for a minute."

ANXIETY

Your pup's panting could also be the result of nervousness or stress. If you notice your dog excessively panting in the car, for example, it's nothing to get too worked up about. (It could very well be that simply being in the car makes them nervous.) Just make sure the area they're experiencing stress in is kept at a cool temperature, and that they have water nearby. If you know what situations can trigger anxiety in your dog—fireworks, for example—do your best to keep them away from these situations when at all possible.

ILLNESS

Though there are all sorts of normal reasons why your dog might be panting, it can sometimes be indicative of a bigger issue. If you notice your pet excessively panting for no apparent reason, they might be sick. The list of possibilities of what could be wrong is is long and ranges from anywhere to allergies and respiratory disorders to heart failure or ​Cushing's syndrome.

If at any time your dog's panting cannot be explained, or somehow seems "off" to you, definitely take them to the vet ASAP. You know your dog's behaviors best, so if something doesn't seem right, it's best to consult with an expert.

Smoke From California Wildfires Has Reached the East Coast

A plume of spoke from the Camp Fire in Paradise, California, on November 8.
A plume of spoke from the Camp Fire in Paradise, California, on November 8.
Justin Sullivan, Getty Images

Smoke from the deadly California wildfires has drifted 3000 miles across the U.S., causing hazy conditions in several East Coast cities, the PhillyVoice reports. Smoggier-than-average skies have been reported in Philadelphia, New York City, and other areas along the east coast.

New Jersey-based meteorologist Gary Szatkowski tweeted a map from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), which illustrates the path the California wildfires' smoke likely took. The agency uses satellite technology and a high-resolution atmospheric model to track wildfires and forecast the direction that smoke is expected to travel. To check it out for yourself in real time, visit NOAA’s High-Resolution Rapid Refresh Smoke feature.

Although this news may be alarming to people in East Coast cities, the smoke is likely to disperse as it continues to travel east, if it hasn't already done so. It isn't expected to cause any health problems in the region, National Weather Service meteorologist Lamont Bain told Dallas News.

In California, however, the air quality is currently as bad as Beijing’s. Wildfire smoke produces isocyanic acid (a toxic substance found in cigarette smoke) among other potentially harmful compounds that are still being researched. Wildfire smoke is potentially responsible for 25,000 deaths per year.

“The biggest health threat from smoke is from fine particles,” the EPA states. “These microscopic particles can penetrate deep into your lungs. They can cause a range of health problems, from burning eyes and a runny nose to aggravated chronic heart and lung diseases. Exposure to particle pollution is even linked to premature death.”

People are advised to limit their time outdoors when the air quality is poor. This is especially true for at-risk groups, including children, the elderly, pregnant women, diabetics, and those with heart or lung disease.

[h/t PhillyVoice]

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