8 Scientific Benefits of Napping

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Even on the best of days, life can be exhausting. If you find your energy flagging in the middle of the day, you might like to know that 34 percent of Americans nap. Napping is a healthy way to restore the deficits of sleep deprivation. Whether you bow down to the ritual of a mid-afternoon siesta or never stop to snooze, you may think twice about the power of napping after reading about these eight benefits.

1. NAPPING CAN BOOST YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM.

Sleep deprivation—particularly repeated, chronic lack of sleep—takes a toll on your neuroendocrine and immune functions by increasing inflammatory molecules known as cytokines, as well as stress hormones like cortisol and norepinephrine. A 2015 study in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism took 11 healthy young men and restricted them to a night of only two hours of sleep. Blood and urine tests measured higher cytokines and levels of norepinephrine in both groups after sleep deprivation. The following day, one group was given two half-hour naps, while the control group did not have any naps. Blood and urine samples of those who napped showed that their cytokines and norepinephrine levels had returned to normal, as though they had never lost a night of sleep.

2. A NAP CAN IMPROVE NIGHT ALERTNESS.

For people who work at night, or through the night, several studies have shown that naps from between 30 minutes and four hours long that are taken in advance of the shift—what's known as a "prophylactic nap"—improve performance and alertness. These naps can also improve nighttime driving alertness on the way home from the shift. However, most of these studies also include the administration of caffeine, which likely contributed. Yet a 1995 study in Sleep, which compared naps and caffeine, found that "naps, in general, provided longer and less graded changes in performance, mood and alertness than did caffeine, which displayed peak effectiveness and loss of effect within about six hours."

3. NAPS + CAFFEINE ARE A ONE-TWO PUNCH AGAINST SLEEPINESS. ASK SURGEONS.

Surgeons must often perform continuous surgery for hours longer than the average person would ever have to persist at a task. A 1994 study in the journal Ergonomics found that naps were indeed effective at keeping surgeons who had to remain awake for 24 hours alert, but only when caffeine was administered, too. Neither naps or caffeine alone were sufficient.

4. TO IMPROVE DAYTIME ALERTNESS, TAKE FREQUENT NAPS.

Daytime napping also appears to improve mental alertness and performance, according to a number of laboratory studies. However, researchers found that shorter naps were more effective than longer ones. The most effective time of them all was 10 minutes, which produced the best outcomes in all sleep measures including "subjective sleepiness, fatigue, vigor, and cognitive performance." A 30-minute nap could produce the same effects but brought about "a period of impaired alertness."

5. NAPS HELP YOU LEARN NEW SKILLS.

If you want to get better at learning a new skill, you might want to take more frequent naps. A 2006 study in Biological Physiology broke participants into two groups: those who napped frequently and those who napped sporadically. Each group was given a nap before a reading task. Habitual nappers—people who reported napping frequently—did better on the reading and retention task. Researchers determined that the brains of habitual nappers consolidated motor learning better, which is part of the process of learning a new skill.

6. IMPROVE YOUR PHYSICAL STAMINA WITH NAPPING.

It turns out that napping is not only just good for mental processes, but has a positive impact on physical stamina and performance as well. A 2007 study in the Journal of Sports Sciences put 10 healthy men through a series of sprints before and after a 30-minute, post-lunch nap. Sprint times improved after the naps, suggesting to the researchers that a post-lunch nap "improves alertness and aspects of mental and physical performance following partial sleep loss." They suggest that napping may be an important part of the regimens of athletes who are undergoing restricted sleep during training or competition.

7. NAP TO IMPROVE YOUR MEMORY.

One of the many functions of regular nighttime sleep is to consolidate memory. A 2010 study in Neurobiology of Learning and Memory set out to see whether daytime naps also improve memory processes, particularly associative memory (the ability to make connections between unrelated objects). Thirty-one healthy participants were given a learning task at 12 p.m. to memorize two sets of face-object photograph pairs. The objects in each pair occurred in both sets but were paired with different faces. Participants were broken into two groups: those who had a 90-minute daytime nap or those who did not. At 4:30 p.m., participants who napped showed notably better retention of associative memory.

8. A 90-MINUTE NAP IS AS GOOD AS A FULL NIGHT’S SLEEP FOR PERCEPTUAL LEARNING.

Previous research demonstrated that people perform better on a visual texture-distinguishing task after a night of sleep than they do immediately after learning it. A 2003 study in Nature Neuroscience found that people performed just as well on the test after a 60- to 90-minute nap as they did after a full night of slumber.

"What's amazing is that in a 90-minute nap, you can get the same [learning] benefits as an eight-hour sleep period," lead author Sarah Mednick said in an interview with the American Psychological Association. "The nap is having an additive benefit on top of a good night of sleep."

Should You Take a Daily Aspirin to Prevent Heart Disease?

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For decades, physicians have recommended that older patients or those who have had a cardiac event like a heart attack take a low-dose aspirin daily. Acting as a blood thinner, aspirin can help prevent blood clots from forming and causing more cardiovascular issues.

This wisdom was examined in a new study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, which looked at more than 19,000 elderly people and found no measurable benefit to the practice for people aged 65 and over. Worse, aspirin may actually cause harm by increasing the risk of bleeding.

So, who should be taking aspirin as a preventative measure, and when?

The most recent study, which began in 2010 and followed subjects 65 and older with no prior cardiovascular disease taking either 100 milligrams of aspirin daily or a placebo, found that the risk of bleeding in the stomach or brain was increased in those taking aspirin (3.8 percent in the aspirin group versus 2.8 percent in the placebo group). The rate of disease-free survival among subjects was no higher among those taking aspirin compared to those on the placebo.

Aspirin has been shown to help some patient populations, however. For people who have already suffered a heart attack or stroke, aspirin can reduce the risk of a recurrence. According to the U.S. Preventative Services Task Force, adults aged 50 to 59 who have a 10 percent or greater chance of developing cardiovascular disease, typically as the result of lifestyle, genetic, and dietary factors, will likely benefit from a daily dose. As that patient population ages and risk of bleeding increases, it becomes a risk-to-benefit assessment. The task force found insufficient information for aspirin use to prevent cardiovascular disease in people under age 50.

The American Heart Association and the American Stroke Association both recommend aspirin to decrease cardiovascular events in patients with risk as low as 6 percent over a 10-year period. For adults with only average risk, no medical authority currently recommends the regimen.

As with any medical issue, it’s best to consult with your doctor about taking aspirin to prevent cardiovascular disease. Only your specific medical history can help determine whether it’s right for you. And if you're currently taking aspirin and have concerns based on the newest research, don't stop taking it until you've had a chance to discuss it with your provider.

[h/t NPR]

5 Ways to Express Your Gratitude (and Reap Its Benefits)

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Bad days happen to the best of us: The alarm doesn't go off, your kids are fussy, you get stuck in traffic, and as soon as you get to work, you spill coffee down the front of your favorite shirt. And then, to add insult to injury, you log onto Facebook and are greeted by the smiling face of your old college roommate, who is just so #blessed. Lucky her.

But is her life really better than yours? It turns out that being grateful for what you have—even if some days, what you have appears to be a disaster—is mostly an exercise in self-reflection. Here are some simple things you can incorporate into your daily routine in order to better appreciate the good things you have going in your life—and doing so, studies have found, can improve your physical and emotional health.

1. KEEP A GRATITUDE JOURNAL.

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The task is easy: Each week, take the time to write down and reflect on five things that you're grateful for. "These can be small things, but big things are fine, too," Jo-Ann Tsang, associate professor of psychology and neuroscience at Baylor University, says.

A 2003 study by researchers from the University of Miami and the University of California, Davis [PDF], found that students who recorded the things they're grateful for felt better about their lives, exercised more regularly, reported fewer physical problems, were more likely to make progress towards personal goals, and were more optimistic about their upcoming week than students who were tasked with writing down hassles or neutral life events.

For the greatest benefits, focus on people, rather than things, in your journaling, and go into detail about why you appreciate each item. Also, don't feel compelled to journal daily: According to the University of California, Berkeley's Greater Good blog, journaling once per week was found to be more beneficial than daily journaling.

2. DO A 30-DAY CHALLENGE.

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Committing to a full month of reflection not only boosts your gratitude awareness, but gives you the satisfaction of completing a goal. Lisa Ryan, gratitude expert and author of Express Gratitude, Experience Good, suggests writing down three to five things that you're grateful for each day for the next 30 days. As with gratitude journaling, this exercise works best if you're specific. Instead of writing that you're grateful for your husband, Ryan says, "you should write, 'I'm so thankful that Scott cooked a great dinner last night.'"

If you choose to write your list in the morning, you'll set a positive expectation for your day. Writing it in the evening will remind you of the good the day brought, even if it was a particularly hard day to get through. It will also help you fall asleep faster and sleep better, Ryan says.

3. HOST A GRATITUDE PARTY.

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If you're going through a hard time, write down the names of the people who have helped you in your life. Then, plan a party in their honor. Amy Newmark, author of Chicken Soup for the Soul: The Power of Gratitude, says, "You'll find that in planning your guest list, you'll start noticing how many people are there for you extending a helping hand every day. This will make you more grateful, and you'll feel less alone every day."

4. GAIN SOME PERSPECTIVE.

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Thinking about the alternatives can help you appreciate what you have, Newmark says. For example, are you stuck emptying the dishwasher again? Think about the fact that you have a warm, comfortable home filled with kitchen appliances. Are you running around in a frenzy, with no time for yourself? Think about how full your life is. "Would you rather not have these errands to do, these kids to drive around, this job that creates all this work?" Newmark asks.

5. SPREAD KINDNESS.

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The very fact that you have the ability to do something nice for someone else will make you feel more confident of your own situation, more aware of your own capabilities, and more grateful for the blessings in your own life. Keep a list of the good deeds you perform—it can be as simple as holding a door for someone or letting a mother with a crying child go ahead of you in line at the store, Newmark says.

And find the right "dosage" for you. For some people, doing five kind things on one day each week, rather than doing five good things throughout the week, showed more positive benefits. Others, however, get more of a boost from daily positive activity [PDF].

This story first ran in 2016.

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