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Salem Dedicates a Memorial at Site of Witch Trial Hangings

On July 19, 1692, five women accused of witchcraft were publicly hanged from a tree on a rocky ledge in Salem, Massachusetts. The grisly event would mark the first of three mass executions held during the infamous Salem witch trials. Now, 325 years after that fateful day, Smithsonian reports that Salem mayor Kimberley Driscoll will dedicate a memorial at the site—called Proctor’s Ledge—to honor the 19 men and women hanged during the trials.

The ceremony will take place on Wednesday, July 19, at noon, according to the Salem News. Speakers will include Driscoll, Salem State University history professor Emerson "Tad" Baker—who, along with a team of local researchers, recently identified the site of the hangings—and a descendant of Rebecca Nurse, an accused "witch" who lost her life on July 19, 1692.

Salem is already home to one memorial of the infamous prosecutions, dedicated in 1992 to mark the 300th anniversary of the trials. The new monument on Proctor’s Ledge is “a ledge wall that goes into the site with granite blocks,” city preservation planner Patricia Kelleher told the Salem News. "Within that retaining wall, there are blocks—19 blocks—and each block will have the name of the person and the date of the execution." These blocks will be illuminated at night, and a sidewalk along an adjacent residential street will allow visitors to pay their respects at the ledge.

The Salem witch trials are a major part of the New England city’s identity. But until 2016, the exact location of the hangings had been been lost to time. Local lore had it that the executions had been staged at the top of Gallows Hill, but no evidence existed to support that claim.

To solve the mystery, a team of local experts—including Baker—launched a research endeavor called the Gallows Hill Project. They examined eyewitness accounts of the hangings, read the writings of local historian Sidney Perley, and used aerial photography and ground-penetrating radar to locate the outcrop near the base of the hill, where many of Salem’s accused witches lost their lives. (Five additional individuals died in jail during the trials, and one was crushed to death with rocks.) Their findings were announced in early 2016.

During the 17th century, Proctor’s Ledge was public grazing land. In later centuries, it was named for Thorndike Proctor—a descendent of trial victim John Proctor, who became the main character in Arthur Miller's The Crucible—who purchased the surrounding land. Today, the wooded site is owned by the city, and sits between two residential streets and behind a Walgreens.

To respect nearby homeowners’ privacy, local officials advise visitors to continue paying their respects at the city's downtown monument to the Salem witch trials. However, they have acknowledged the importance of placing a marker on the execution site—even if they'd prefer it not become a new tourist attraction.

"I think knowing the exact location where the executions took place is important because we want to get history right," Driscoll said in a statement. "It's also an opportunity to come together and recognize the injustice and tragedy.”

[h/t Smithsonian]

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Big Questions
Why Do the Lions and Cowboys Always Play on Thanksgiving?
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Because it's tradition! But how did this tradition begin?

Every year since 1934, the Detroit Lions have taken the field for a Thanksgiving game, no matter how bad their record has been. It all goes back to when the Lions were still a fairly young franchise. The team started in 1929 in Portsmouth, Ohio, as the Spartans. Portsmouth, while surely a lovely town, wasn't quite big enough to support a pro team in the young NFL. Detroit radio station owner George A. Richards bought the Spartans and moved the team to Detroit in 1934.

Although Richards's new squad was a solid team, they were playing second fiddle in Detroit to the Hank Greenberg-led Tigers, who had gone 101-53 to win the 1934 American League Pennant. In the early weeks of the 1934 season, the biggest crowd the Lions could draw for a game was a relatively paltry 15,000. Desperate for a marketing trick to get Detroit excited about its fledgling football franchise, Richards hit on the idea of playing a game on Thanksgiving. Since Richards's WJR was one of the bigger radio stations in the country, he had considerable clout with his network and convinced NBC to broadcast a Thanksgiving game on 94 stations nationwide.

The move worked brilliantly. The undefeated Chicago Bears rolled into town as defending NFL champions, and since the Lions had only one loss, the winner of the first Thanksgiving game would take the NFL's Western Division. The Lions not only sold out their 26,000-seat stadium, they also had to turn fans away at the gate. Even though the juggernaut Bears won that game, the tradition took hold, and the Lions have been playing on Thanksgiving ever since.

This year, the Lions host the Minnesota Vikings.

HOW 'BOUT THEM COWBOYS?


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The Cowboys, too, jumped on the opportunity to play on Thanksgiving as an extra little bump for their popularity. When the chance to take the field on Thanksgiving arose in 1966, it might not have been a huge benefit for the Cowboys. Sure, the Lions had filled their stadium for their Thanksgiving games, but that was no assurance that Texans would warm to holiday football so quickly.

Cowboys general manager Tex Schramm, though, was something of a marketing genius; among his other achievements was the creation of the Dallas Cowboys Cheerleaders.

Schramm saw the Thanksgiving Day game as a great way to get the team some national publicity even as it struggled under young head coach Tom Landry. Schramm signed the Cowboys up for the game even though the NFL was worried that the fans might just not show up—the league guaranteed the team a certain gate revenue in case nobody bought tickets. But the fans showed up in droves, and the team broke its attendance record as 80,259 crammed into the Cotton Bowl. The Cowboys beat the Cleveland Browns 26-14 that day, and a second Thanksgiving pigskin tradition caught hold. Since 1966, the Cowboys have missed having Thanksgiving games only twice.

Dallas will take on the Los Angeles Chargers on Thursday.

WHAT'S WITH THE NIGHT GAME?


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In 2006, because 6-plus hours of holiday football was not sufficient, the NFL added a third game to the Thanksgiving lineup. This game is not assigned to a specific franchise—this year, the Washington Redskins will welcome the New York Giants.

Re-running this 2008 article a few days before the games is our Thanksgiving tradition.

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Why Your Traditional Thanksgiving Should Include Oysters
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If you want to throw a really traditional Thanksgiving dinner, you’ll need oysters. The mollusks would have been featured prominently on the holiday tables of the earliest American settlers—even if that beloved Thanksgiving turkey probably wasn’t. At the time, oysters were supremely popular additions to the table for coastal colonial settlements, though in some cases, they were seen as a hardship food more than a delicacy.

For one thing, oysters were an easy food source. In the Chesapeake Bay, they were so plentiful in the 17th and 18th centuries that ships had to be careful not to run aground on oyster beds, and one visitor in 1702 wrote that they could be pulled up with only a pair of tongs. Native Americans, too, ate plenty of oysters, occasionally harvesting them and feasting for days.

Early colonists ate so many oysters that the population of the mollusks dwindled to dangerously low levels by the 19th century, according to curriculum prepared by a Gettysburg University history professor. In these years, scarcity turned oysters into a luxury item for the wealthy, a situation that prevailed until the 1880s, when oyster production skyrocketed and prices dropped again [PDF]. If you lived on the coast, though, you were probably still downing the bivalves.

Beginning in the 1840s, canning and railroads brought the mollusks to inland regions. According to 1985's The Celebrated Oysterhouse Cookbook, the middle of the 19th century found America in a “great oyster craze,” where “no evening of pleasure was complete without oysters; no host worthy of the name failed to serve 'the luscious bivalves,' as they were actually called, to his guests.”

At the turn of the century, oysters were still a Thanksgiving standard. They were on Thanksgiving menus everywhere from New York City's Plaza Hotel to train dining cars, in the form of soup, cocktails, and stuffing.

In 1954, the Fish and Wildlife Service tried to promote Thanksgiving oysters to widespread use once again. They sent out a press release [PDF], entitled “Oysters—a Thanksgiving Tradition,” which included the agency’s own recipes for cocktail sauce, oyster bisque, and oyster stuffing.

In the modern era, Thanksgiving oysters have remained most popular in the South. Oyster stuffing is a classic dish in New Orleans, and chefs like Emeril Lagasse have their own signature recipes. If you’re not looking for a celebrity chef’s recipe, perhaps you want to try the Fish and Wildlife Service’s? Check it out below.

Oyster Stuffing

INGREDIENTS

1 pint oysters
1/2 cup chopped celery
1/2 cup chopped onion
1/4 cup butter
4 cups day-old bread cubes
1 tablespoon chopped parsley
1 teaspoon salt
Dash poultry seasoning
Dash pepper

Drain oysters, saving liquor, and chop. Cook celery and onion in butter until tender. Combine oysters, cooked vegetables, bread cubes, and seasonings, and mix thoroughly. If stuffing seems dry, moisten with oyster liquor. Makes enough for a four-pound chicken.

If you’re using a turkey, the FWS advises that the recipe above provides enough for about every five pounds of bird, so multiply accordingly.

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