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Salem Dedicates a Memorial at Site of Witch Trial Hangings

On July 19, 1692, five women accused of witchcraft were publicly hanged from a tree on a rocky ledge in Salem, Massachusetts. The grisly event would mark the first of three mass executions held during the infamous Salem witch trials. Now, 325 years after that fateful day, Smithsonian reports that Salem mayor Kimberley Driscoll will dedicate a memorial at the site—called Proctor’s Ledge—to honor the 19 men and women hanged during the trials.

The ceremony will take place on Wednesday, July 19, at noon, according to the Salem News. Speakers will include Driscoll, Salem State University history professor Emerson "Tad" Baker—who, along with a team of local researchers, recently identified the site of the hangings—and a descendant of Rebecca Nurse, an accused "witch" who lost her life on July 19, 1692.

Salem is already home to one memorial of the infamous prosecutions, dedicated in 1992 to mark the 300th anniversary of the trials. The new monument on Proctor’s Ledge is “a ledge wall that goes into the site with granite blocks,” city preservation planner Patricia Kelleher told the Salem News. "Within that retaining wall, there are blocks—19 blocks—and each block will have the name of the person and the date of the execution." These blocks will be illuminated at night, and a sidewalk along an adjacent residential street will allow visitors to pay their respects at the ledge.

The Salem witch trials are a major part of the New England city’s identity. But until 2016, the exact location of the hangings had been been lost to time. Local lore had it that the executions had been staged at the top of Gallows Hill, but no evidence existed to support that claim.

To solve the mystery, a team of local experts—including Baker—launched a research endeavor called the Gallows Hill Project. They examined eyewitness accounts of the hangings, read the writings of local historian Sidney Perley, and used aerial photography and ground-penetrating radar to locate the outcrop near the base of the hill, where many of Salem’s accused witches lost their lives. (Five additional individuals died in jail during the trials, and one was crushed to death with rocks.) Their findings were announced in early 2016.

During the 17th century, Proctor’s Ledge was public grazing land. In later centuries, it was named for Thorndike Proctor—a descendent of trial victim John Proctor, who became the main character in Arthur Miller's The Crucible—who purchased the surrounding land. Today, the wooded site is owned by the city, and sits between two residential streets and behind a Walgreens.

To respect nearby homeowners’ privacy, local officials advise visitors to continue paying their respects at the city's downtown monument to the Salem witch trials. However, they have acknowledged the importance of placing a marker on the execution site—even if they'd prefer it not become a new tourist attraction.

"I think knowing the exact location where the executions took place is important because we want to get history right," Driscoll said in a statement. "It's also an opportunity to come together and recognize the injustice and tragedy.”

[h/t Smithsonian]

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Art
5 Things You Might Not Know About Ansel Adams

You probably know Ansel Adams—who was born on February 20, 1902—as the man who helped promote the National Park Service through his magnificent photographs. But there was a lot more to the shutterbug than his iconic, black-and-white vistas. Here are five lesser-known facts about the celebrated photographer.

1. AN EARTHQUAKE LED TO HIS DISTINCTIVE NOSE.

Adams was a four-year-old tot when the 1906 San Francisco earthquake struck his hometown. Although the boy managed to escape injury during the quake itself, an aftershock threw him face-first into a garden wall, breaking his nose. According to a 1979 interview with TIME, Adams said that doctors told his parents that it would be best to fix the nose when the boy matured. He joked, "But of course I never did mature, so I still have the nose." The nose became Adams' most striking physical feature. His buddy Cedric Wright liked to refer to Adams' honker as his "earthquake nose.

2. HE ALMOST BECAME A PIANIST.

Adams was an energetic, inattentive student, and that trait coupled with a possible case of dyslexia earned him the heave-ho from private schools. It was clear, however, that he was a sharp boy—when motivated.

When Adams was just 12 years old, he taught himself to play the piano and read music, and he quickly showed a great aptitude for it. For nearly a dozen years, Adams focused intensely on his piano training. He was still playful—he would end performances by jumping up and sitting on his piano—but he took his musical education seriously. Adams ultimately devoted over a decade to his study, but he eventually came to the realization that his hands simply weren't big enough for him to become a professional concert pianist. He decided to leave the keys for the camera after meeting photographer Paul Strand, much to his family's dismay.

3. HE HELPED CREATE A NATIONAL PARK.

If you've ever enjoyed Kings Canyon National Park in California, tip your cap to Adams. In the 1930s Adams took a series of photographs that eventually became the book Sierra Nevada: The John Muir Trail. When Adams sent a copy to Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes, the cabinet member showed it to Franklin Roosevelt. The photographs so delighted FDR that he wouldn't give the book back to Ickes. Adams sent Ickes a replacement copy, and FDR kept his with him in the White House.

After a few years, Ickes, Adams, and the Sierra Club successfully convinced Roosevelt to make Kings Canyon a national park in 1940. Roosevelt's designation specifically provided that the park be left totally undeveloped and roadless, so the only way FDR himself would ever experience it was through Adams' lenses.

4. HE WELCOMED COMMERCIAL ASSIGNMENTS.

While many of his contemporary fine art photographers shunned commercial assignments as crass or materialistic, Adams went out of his way to find paying gigs. If a company needed a camera for hire, Adams would generally show up, and as a result, he had some unlikely clients. According to The Ansel Adams Gallery, he snapped shots for everyone from IBM to AT&T to women's colleges to a dried fruit company. All of this commercial print work dismayed Adams's mentor Alfred Stieglitz and even worried Adams when he couldn't find time to work on his own projects. It did, however, keep the lights on.

5. HE AND GEORGIA O'KEEFFE WERE FRIENDS.

Adams and legendary painter O'Keeffe were pals and occasional traveling buddies who found common ground despite their very different artistic approaches. They met through their mutual friend/mentor Stieglitz—who eventually became O'Keeffe's husband—and became friends who traveled throughout the Southwest together during the 1930s. O'Keeffe would paint while Adams took photographs.

These journeys together led to some of the artists' best-known work, like Adams' portrait of O'Keeffe and a wrangler named Orville Cox, and while both artists revered nature and the American Southwest, Adams considered O'Keeffe the master when it came to capturing the area. 

“The Southwest is O’Keeffe’s land,” he wrote. “No one else has extracted from it such a style and color, or has revealed the essential forms so beautifully as she has in her paintings.”

The two remained close throughout their lives. Adams would visit O'Keeffe's ranch, and the two wrote to each other until Adams' death in 1984.

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presidents
George Washington’s Incredible Hair Routine

America's Founding Fathers had some truly defining locks, but we tend to think of those well-coiffed white curls—with their black ribbon hair ties and perfectly-managed frizz—as being wigs. Not so in the case of the main man himself, George Washington.

As Robert Krulwich reported at National Geographic, a 2010 biography on our first president—Washington: A Life, by Ron Chernow—reveals that the man “never wore a wig.” In fact, his signature style was simply the result of an elaborately constructed coiffure that far surpasses most morning hair routines, and even some “fancy” hair routines.

The style Washington was sporting was actually a tough look for his day. In the late 18th century, such a hairdo would have been worn by military men.

While the hair itself was all real, the color was not. Washington’s true hue was a reddish brown color, which he powdered in a fashion that’s truly delightful to imagine. George would (likely) don a powdering robe, dip a puff made of silk strips into his powder of choice (there are a few options for what he might have used), bend his head over, and shake the puff out over his scalp in a big cloud.

To achieve the actual ‘do, Washington kept his hair long and would then pull it back into a tight braid or simply tie it at the back. This helped to showcase the forehead, which was very in vogue at the time. On occasion, he—or an attendant—would bunch the slack into a black silk bag at the nape of the neck, perhaps to help protect his clothing from the powder. Then he would fluff the hair on each side of his head to make “wings” and secure the look with pomade or good old natural oils.

To get a better sense of the play-by-play, check out the awesome illustrations by Wendy MacNaughton that accompany Krulwich’s post.

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