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Scientists Put a GIF Inside Living Bacteria

Researchers at Harvard University have figured out a way to embed moving images into the DNA of E. coli bacteria. The team described their process in the journal Nature.

It's a setup any spy would love: a code within a code. The paper authors see bacterial DNA as a form of information storage, almost like a computer's hard drive. As the science of gene editing technology advances, we're learning how to fit more—and more complex—information on the same equipment.

Enabling this advancement is a gene editing technique called CRISPR-Cas, which gives scientists access to certain immune-activating regions of bacterial DNA. Researchers have already used that access to engineer malaria-resistant mosquitoes and track down disease-causing pathogens. 

Other scientists have successfully inserted secret messages in E. coli's genetic blueprints. Some have even gotten the bacteria to hold pictures. But until now, none of those pictures have moved.

The Harvard team wanted to see how far CRISPR-Cas could get them. First, they had to select their images. And while some researchers may have taken this opportunity to immortalize a goofy cat GIF, the Harvard team wanted the content of the first-ever bacterial home movies to have significance.

Eadweard Muybridge was a 19th-century photographer whose work blurred the line between art and science. Muybridge pushed the camera technology of the time to its limits, using what was then high-speed imaging to capture incredible shots of people and other animals in motion. His photos showed us the potential of both cameras and our bodies.

And so the authors of the new paper thought it would be appropriate to make their first moving image a Muybridge—specifically, his groundbreaking image of a horse in full gallop. They converted the images to pixels, then converted those pixels to nucleotides, which are often called the building blocks of DNA. They popped those nucleotides into the bacteria's genetic code, then ran the DNA through a sequencer to see if the pixel information stayed in place. It did.

But lead author Seth Shipman says printing images is just the beginning. He envisions a world in which our cells work like microscopic cameras, recording the state and goings-on inside our bodies.

"What we want this system to be used for, eventually, is not to encode information that we already have, but for a way for cells to go out and gather information that we don't have access to," Shipman told Popular Science. "If we could have them collect data and then store that data in their genomes, then we might have access to completely new types of information."

If that concept sounds kind of creepy to you, we have some good news: It's still a long way off.

[h/t Popular Science]

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Why a Howling Wind Sounds So Spooky, According to Science
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Halloween is swiftly approaching, meaning you'll likely soon hear creepy soundtracks—replete with screams, clanking chains, and howling winds—blaring from haunted houses and home displays. While the sound of human suffering is frightful for obvious reasons, what is it, exactly, about a brisk fall gust that sends shivers up our spines? In horror movie scenes and ghost stories, these spooky gales are always presented as blowing through dead trees. Do bare branches actually make the natural wailing noises louder, or is this detail added simply for atmospheric purposes?

As the SciShow's Hank Green explains in the video below, wind howls because it curves around obstacles like trees or buildings. When fast-moving air goes around, say, a tree, it splits up as it whips past, before coming back together on the other side. Due to factors such as natural randomness, air speed, and the tree's surface, one side's wind is going to be slightly stronger when the two currents rejoin, pushing the other side's gust out of the way. The two continue to interact back-and-forth in what could be likened to an invisible wrestling match, as high-pressure airwaves and whirlpools mix together and vibrate the air. If the wind is fast enough, this phenomenon will produce the eerie noise we've all come to recognize in horror films.

Leafy trees "will absorb some of the vibrations in the air and dull the sound, but without leaves—like if it's the middle of the winter or the entire forest is dead—the howling will travel a lot farther," Green explains. That's why a dead forest on a windy night sounds so much like the undead.

Learn more by watching SciShow's video below.

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Space
SpaceX's Landing Blooper Reel Shows That Even Rocket Scientists Make Mistakes
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SpaceX's Falcon 9 rocket launches.
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On March 30, 2017, SpaceX did something no space program had done before: They relaunched an orbital class rocket from Earth that had successfully achieved lift-off just a year earlier. It wasn't the first time Elon Musk's company broke new ground: In December 2015, it nailed the landing on a reusable rocket—the first time that had been done—and five months later landed a rocket on a droneship in the middle of the ocean, which was also unprecedented. These feats marked significant moments in the history of space travel, but they were just a few of the steps in the long, messy journey to achieve them. In SpaceX's new blooper reel, spotted by Ars Technica, you can see just some of the many failures the company has had along the way.

The video demonstrates that failure is an important part of the scientific process. Of course when the science you're working in deals with launching and landing rockets, failure can be a lot more dramatic than it is in a lab. SpaceX has filmed their rockets blowing up in the air, disintegrating in the ocean, and smashing against landing pads, often because of something small like a radar glitch or lack of propellant.

While explosions—or "rapid unscheduled disassemblies," as the video calls them—are never ideal, some are preferable to others. The Falcon 9 explosion that shook buildings for miles last year, for instance, ended up destroying the $200 million Facebook satellite onboard. But even costly hiccups such as that one are important to future successes. As Musk once said, "If things are not failing, you are not innovating enough."

You can watch the fiery compilation below.

[h/t Ars Technica]

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