6 Quick Facts About the Buttocks

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The human body is an amazing thing. For each one of us, it's the most intimate object we know. And yet most of us don't know enough about it: its features, functions, quirks, and mysteries. Our series The Body explores human anatomy, part by part. Think of it as a mini digital encyclopedia with a dose of wow.

You can thank your buttocks for a number of physical actions you take every day, from moving your hip and thigh during walking or running, to rising from a sitting position, climbing, and even just standing upright. While lack of exercise can make these muscles soft, in general they're some of the hardest working muscles in your body. To learn more, Mental Floss spoke with Clifford Stark, medical director of Sports Medicine at Chelsea in New York City, and Vivian Eisenstadt, an orthopedic and spine specialist in physical therapy in Los Angeles. Here are six quick facts we picked up about the glutes.

1. WHEN IT COMES TO THE BOOTY, BIGGER MIGHT BE BETTER.

Your glutes are your body's largest and most powerful muscle group, Stark tells Mental Floss. Your powerful buttocks are actually comprised of three gluteal muscles: the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, and gluteus minimus, often shorthanded to "the glutes."

"They are extremely important in preventing all sorts of injuries," Stark adds. Many injuries, from hips to knee, stem from weak gluteal muscles. It's important to keep your glutes strong—but not tight.

2. IF YOU'RE NOT BORN WITH IT, YOU CAN PAY FOR IT.

In 2016, 4251 people in the U.S. got a butt lift, and another 2999 got butt implants, according to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons' 2016 Report [PDF]. These numbers make sense, because according to the professional organization, butt implants were the fastest growing type of plastic surgery in 2015. Yet while butt surgery may be increasingly popular, it still hasn't cracked the top 5 of cosmetic surgical procedures (breast augmentation, liposuction, nose reshaping, eyelid surgery, and facelift, in that order).

3. WHY DO WE CALL A BARE BUTT A "FULL MOON"?

In the Ming dynasty in China, bare buttocks were seen as quite erotic and they were often compared to a full moon, perhaps because of their pert roundness.

4. VICTORIANS WERE REALLY INTO EROTIC SPANKING.

While spanking has been proven bad for kids, it may be good for your sex life. Victorians were particularly obsessed with "erotic spanking." According to Deborah Lutz, author of Pleasure Bound: Victorian Sex Rebels and the New Eroticism, "something like 50 percent of the pornography of the time was flagellation pornography," she told Salon. One prevailing theory suggests that the practice has its roots in the upper-class men who as children had attended private schools, where a common punishment was to be whipped in front of their classmates with birch switches. "Any schoolboys who wanted to could come and watch. For many of these boys, of course, it was traumatic, but for other boys it's an erotic experience. It developed into this masochistic eroticism," Lutz said.

5. BACK PAIN MAY ORIGINATE IN YOUR BUTTOCKS.

"A little-known fact is that strengthening your buttocks helps decrease back pain," Eisenstadt tells Mental Floss. "While physical and occupational therapists know this, many people are not aware and increase risk of injury by neglecting this important muscle." In her practice, when people come in complaining of back pain, she checks out their butts first.

6. A SMALL NUMBER OF PEOPLE HAVE THIS UNUSUAL POSITIONING OF THE SCIATIC NERVE.

"Sciatica is a laymen's term for pain down the leg," says Stark. The sciatic nerve typically lies right on top of the piriformis muscle, a small muscle that lives deep in the buttock, behind the gluteus maximus. For a certain percentage of the population, however, he says, the sciatic nerve sometimes pierces right through the muscle. Those people are especially prone to sciatic pain, he says: "All it takes is a spasm to cut off that nerve."

10 Smart Facts About Your Gut

Colorized scanning electron micrograph of E. coli, a common gut bacteria
Colorized scanning electron micrograph of E. coli, a common gut bacteria
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

Gut feelings get all the press, but your gut may be more of a thinker than you know. Some scientists now consider it a second brain. While it won’t necessarily help you study for an exam or get a promotion, your gut can influence the chemistry of your mood, emotions, immune system, and long-term health. Research even suggests the gut can “learn” new tricks through conditioning. These powerful connections are part an emerging field of science called neurogastroenterology designed to study the gut-brain link. Here are 10 facts you may not know about your gut.

1. THE GUT DOESN'T NEED THE BRAIN'S INPUT. 

You might think of your gut as a rebel against authority. It doesn’t wait for your brain’s impulses to do the important work of digestion, because it doesn’t need to—it acts as its own “brain.” No other organ, not even the all-powerful heart, can pull that off.

2. THERE ARE MORE THAN 100 MILLION BRAIN CELLS IN YOUR GUT.

Your gut’s power to think for itself is no surprise; there are millions of neurons in its lengthy coils (9 meters of intestines, from esophagus to anus). That’s more neurons than are found in the spinal cord or peripheral nervous system.

3. YOUR GUT HAS ITS OWN NERVOUS SYSTEM.

The enteric nervous system—the controlling mechanism of digestion and elimination—is the overlord of your gut, and functions all on its own. Some scientists see it as part of the central nervous system, while others consider it its own entity. It likely evolved to give the gut the go-ahead when the “got to go” impulse strikes, without requiring the brain’s sign-off, particularly when you consider the helplessness of an infant with its brand-new brain.

4. THERE'S AN INFORMATION HIGHWAY FROM YOUR GUT TO YOUR BRAIN.

There’s one big visceral nerve embedded in your gut—the vagus nerve. Research has revealed that up to 90 percent of its fibers carry information from the gut to the brain, rather than the other way around. In other words, the brain interprets gut signals as emotions. So you really should trust your gut.

5. MOST OF YOUR SEROTONIN IS IN YOUR GUT.

Some 95 percent of your body’s serotonin, that marvelous mood molecule that antidepressant drugs like Prozac keep in your body, can be found in the gut. So, it’s no wonder that diet, medications, and antibiotics can wreak havoc on one’s mood.

6. A HEALTHY GUT MAY PROTECT YOUR BONES.

In a study of the serotonin-gut relationship, scientists discovered an unexpected link between the gut and the bones. Inhibiting the gut’s release of serotonin counteracted the bone-density reduction of osteoporosis in mice. This research is going into studies on new osteoporosis-fighting drugs.

7. RESEARCH SHOWS LINKS BETWEEN AUTISM AND HAVING FEWER STRAINS OF GUT BACTERIA. 

In as many as nine out of 10 cases, autistic people have common gut imbalances such as leaky gut syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and fewer strains of “good” bacteria. Research on mice is looking at possible treatments of some of the behavioral disorders of autism by balancing microbes in the guts, though many warn that such treatments can’t produce a “cure” for autism.

8. FOOD REALLY DOES AFFECT YOUR MOOD. 

Different foods, when introduced to the gut via feeding tubes, have been shown to change a person's moods without the person’s awareness of what they were "eating." Fat, for instance, increased feelings of happiness and pleasure (no surprise there) because appeared to trigger the release of dopamine—the brain’s natural opiate. Carbohydrate consumption stimulated the release of serotonin, the “feel good” neurotransmitter.

9. YOUR GUT IS YOUR BEST FRIEND IN COLD AND FLU SEASON.

Not only does your gut hold brain cells, it also houses the bulk of your immune cells—70 percent—in the form of gut associated lymphoid tissue, or GALT, which plays a huge part in killing and expelling pathogens. GALT and your gut microbiome—the trillions of bacteria that live, like an immense microbial universe, in your gut—work hard to help you get over what ails you. That’s all the more reason to be careful with the use of antibiotics, which wipe out the good bacteria along with the bad.

10. YOUR GUT CAN BECOME ADDICTED TO OPIATES.

Inside your gut are opiate receptors, which are also found in the brain. The gut is just as susceptible to addiction as the brain and may contribute to the intense difficulty some addicts have trying to kick the habit.

What Causes Hiccups?

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iStock/damircudic

The cause of hiccups depends on whom you ask. The ancient Greek physician Galen thought hiccups were violent emotions erupting from the body, while others thought they were a sign of liver inflammation. Today, evidence points to spasms in the diaphragm, the large muscle between the chest and abdomen that aids airflow during breathing. This involuntary contraction can be brought on by a number of things that might irritate the nerves that control the movement of the muscle. A full stomach, heavy boozing, rapid shifts in temperature either inside or outside of the stomach, and certain emotions like shock or excitement are all common culprits.

No matter the cause, the result is the same: The diaphragm spasms and causes us to take a quick breath. The sudden rush of air causes the epiglottis (the flap that protects the space between the vocal cords) to shut and interrupt the breath, which makes the familiar "hic" sound.

WHAT CURES THEM?

The best cure for hiccups also depends on the person you ask. Almost all cures are based on one of two principles: One type works its magic by overwhelming the vagus nerve with another sensation. The vagus nerve is a cranial nerve that innervates the stomach and conveys sensory information about the body's organs to the brain. When distracted by overwhelming information of another sort, it basically tells the brain that something more important has come up and the hiccuping should probably be stopped (vagus nerve stimulation is also used to control seizures in epileptics and treat drug-resistant cases of clinical depression). The other method for curing hiccups is to interfere with the breathing, increasing the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood, and causing the body to focus on getting rid of the of the CO2 and not making hiccups.

Swallowing a spoonful of sugar is probably the most commonly prescribed hiccup cure and falls into the first category. A teaspoon of sugar is usually enough to stimulate the vagus nerve and make the body forget all about the hiccups. Even ardent supporters of the sugar cure disagree if the sugar should be taken dry or washed down with water, though.

If this home remedy doesn't work, and your hiccups are both severe and persistent, you may need to bring out the big guns. For chronic cases like this, doctors sometimes use a cocktail of Reglan (a gastrointestinal stimulant) and Thorazine (an anti-psychotic with sedative properties) to quiet things down. In some cases that resist these drugs, Kemstro, an anti-spasmodic, is also used. Other doctors have used vagus nerve stimulators implanted in the upper chest of patients. The pacemaker-like devices send rhythmic bursts of electricity through the vagus nerve to the brain to keep the hiccup cycle in check.

Many people prefer home remedies to battle their hiccups, which may include holding your breath, gargling ice water, or breathing into a paper bag. While the same people will swear by the treatment they've been using all these years, there's no firm scientific consensus that any of them actually work. But if it helps you, isn't that all that matters?

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

An earlier version of this article appeared in 2012.

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