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Mary-Lynn, Flickr, CC BY 2.0
Mary-Lynn, Flickr, CC BY 2.0

11 Primal Facts About Dian Fossey

Mary-Lynn, Flickr, CC BY 2.0
Mary-Lynn, Flickr, CC BY 2.0

Born in San Francisco on January 16, 1932, Dian Fossey came from a world far removed from the dense jungles of East Africa. She discovered that environment in her thirties and spent the final decades of her life studying the gorillas that lived there. From her groundbreaking primatology work to her mysterious death, here are 11 facts about the scientist behind Gorillas in the Mist.

1. HER LOVE OF ANIMALS BEGAN WITH A PET GOLDFISH.

Though she went on to become one of history's most famous animal-lovers, Fossey didn't grow up in a pet-friendly household. The only animal she was allowed to keep as a child was a single goldfish. She loved her fish, but when it died, her parents barred her from getting another animal to replace it. Even a pet hamster offered to her by a classmate was forbidden from entering the house.

2. SHE WAS A PRIZE-WINNING EQUESTRIAN.

Not permitted to keep pets in the home, Fossey nurtured her passion for animals through equestrianism. She received her first horseback-riding lesson at age 6. By the time she reached her teen years, she was advanced enough to merit an invitation to join the riding team at Lowell High School in San Francisco. Her hobby earned her several awards and pushed her to pursue an education in animal husbandry at the University of California, Davis. Even after she'd shifted career aspirations to occupational therapy, Fossey chose to move to Kentucky to be closer to farm life.

3. SHE SPENT HER LIFE SAVINGS ON HER FIRST TRIP TO AFRICA.

Dian Fossey was 31 when she first stepped foot on the continent where she'd complete her most important work. Inspired by a friend's trip to Africa, she collected her life savings (about $8000), took out a three-year bank loan, and planned a seven-week trip through the wilderness of Kenya, Tanzania, Congo, and Zimbabwe. On her adventures there she met Louis Leakey, the anthropologist famous for sponsoring the all-woman trio of primatology pioneers (the "trimates") that included Jane Goodall, Biruté Galdikas, and eventually Dian Fossey herself. It was also during this period when Fossey saw gorillas in the wild for the first time. She met wildlife photographers Joan and Alan Root and joined them on an expedition to photograph the animals in the Congolese mountains. The vacation wasn't scientific in nature, but as Fossey later wrote, "The seed was planted in my head, even if unconsciously, that I would someday return to Africa to study the gorillas of the mountains."

4. SHE PROVED HER DEDICATION WITH AN APPENDECTOMY.

Leakey reconnected with Fossey back in the States in 1966. The anthropologist had spent the last several years supporting his former secretary Jane Goodall in her chimpanzee research, and now he was in search of a candidate to do for gorillas what Goodall had done for chimps. After getting to know Fossey better, he decided she was the right woman for the job. He offered to gather the funding for her trip back to Africa, but before she left she would need to remove her appendix as a precaution. This didn't scare her off. When Leakey wrote six weeks later to say the surgery wouldn't be necessary and he had just wanted to make sure she was committed, she was already appendix-less.

5. HER FIRST RESEARCH EXPEDITION ENDED ABRUPTLY.

Fossey returned to the Congo toward the end of 1966—just months before a civil war erupted in the already volatile region. Rebel soldiers captured her at her base camp in July 1967. After spending two weeks in military detainment, she was able to bribe her way out with promises of cash and her Land Rover. The guards agreed to drive her to Uganda, and shortly after they arrived, she had them arrested. After the scare, Fossey was ready to resume her research almost immediately: This time she set up camp in Rwanda, ignoring warnings from the U.S. Embassy.

6. SHE UNCOVERED THE GORILLAS' TRUE NATURE.

Prior to Fossey's research, the public viewed gorillas as beasts similar in temperament to King Kong. She quickly disproved the notion that gorillas were bloodthirsty animals that would attack humans when given the chance.

To infiltrate their society, she adopted their habits. Walking on her knuckles and chewing on celery stalks allowed her to gain the apes' trust. As long as she maintained a nonthreatening profile and made her presence known at all times, she was safe around the gentle behemoths. Today we know that despite their intimidating size, gorillas are some of the least violent members of the great ape family.

7. SHE EARNED A UNIQUE NICKNAME FROM LOCALS.

Dian Fossey spent enough time at her research center in Rwanda to garner a reputation. To the locals she was Nyiramachabelli, a Swahili name that when roughly translated means "the woman who lives alone on the mountain."

8. SHE USED THE GORILLAS' NOSES TO TELL THEM APART.

Many of the gorillas Fossey studied were given names, such as Peanut, Rafiki, and Uncle Bert. Fossey used another method to tell her subjects apart: She drew sketches of their noses. Each gorilla has a unique pattern of wrinkles around its nose that makes it easy to identify. These nose prints are the equivalent of fingerprints in humans, but instead of getting up close to study them, Fossey was able to document them from far away using binoculars and a sketchpad.

9. ONE OF HER GORILLAS IS ALIVE TODAY.

Hundreds of gorillas made it into Dian Fossey's body of research. In 2017, only one specimen from that original pool is still alive. Poppy was born into a group of gorillas on Fossey's radar in 1976. The researcher documented the animal's birth and childhood in her journals. Today, at 41, Poppy is the oldest gorilla currently monitored by the Dian Fossey Fund.

10. HER WORK IS THE SUBJECT OF A BOOK, A MOVIE, AND AN OPERA.

In 1983, Fossey published the book that helped make her famous. Gorillas in the Mist is the autobiographical account of her first 13 years in the African jungle and the scientific discoveries she made about the gorillas living there. The title went on to become a bestseller. Five years later, Sigourney Weaver starred as Fossey in a film of the same name. The biopic snagged five Oscar nominations and converted Weaver into a gorilla conservationist.

There's another dramatization of Fossey's life that's not so widely known: In 2006, the Kentucky Opera VISIONS! program staged an opera called Nyiramachabelli—a nod to the researcher's nickname.

11. HER DEATH REMAINS A MYSTERY.

Next to her groundbreaking gorilla research, Fossey is perhaps best known for her mysterious and tragic murder. On December 27, 1985, she was found dead in her cabin at her Rwandan research camp. The cause of death was a machete blow to the head, but the identity of her assailant remains unknown to this day. (A Rwandan court convicted in absentia her American research assistant, Wayne McGuire, for her murder and sentenced him to death. McGuire, who fled Rwanda before the conviction, has always maintained his innocence.) Fossey was buried in the nearby mountains beside the grave of her favorite gorilla Digit, who had been slaughtered by poachers years earlier. Before she was killed, Fossey wrote one final entry in her diary. It reads:

“When you realize the value of all life, you dwell less on what is past and concentrate on the preservation of the future.”

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Anne Dirkse, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0
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Space
10 Astonishing Things You Should Know About the Milky Way
Anne Dirkse, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0
Anne Dirkse, Flickr // CC BY-SA 2.0

Our little star and the tiny planets that circle it are part of a galaxy called the Milky Way. Its name comes from the Greek galaxias kyklos ("milky circle") and Latin via lactea ("milky road"). Find a remote area in a national park, miles from the nearest street light, and you'll see exactly why the name makes sense and what all the fuss is about. Above is not a sky of black, but a luminous sea of whites, blues, greens, and tans. Here are a few things you might not know about our spiraling home in the universe.

1. THE MILKY WAY IS GIGANTIC.

The Milky Way galaxy is about 1,000,000,000,000,000,000 kilometers (about 621,371,000,000,000,000 miles) across. Even traveling at the speed of light, it would still take you well over 100,000 years to go from one end of the galaxy to the other. So it's big. Not quite as big as space itself, which is "vastly, hugely, mind-bogglingly big," as Douglas Adams wrote, but respectably large. And that's just one galaxy. Consider how many galaxies there are in the universe: One recent estimate says 2 trillion.

2. IT'S JAM-PACKED WITH CELESTIAL STUFF.

artist's illustration of the milky way galaxy and its center
An artist's concept of the Milky Way and the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* at its core.
ESA–C. Carreau

The Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy composed of an estimated 300 billion stars, along with dust, gas, and celestial phenomena such as nebulae, all of which orbits around a hub of sorts called the Galactic Center, with a supermassive black hole called Sagittarius A* (pronounced "A-star") at its core. The bar refers to the characteristic arrangement of stars at the interior of the galaxy, with interstellar gas essentially being channeled inward to feed an interstellar nursery. There are four spiral arms of the galaxy, with the Sun residing on the inner part of a minor arm called Orion. We're located in the boondocks of the Milky Way, but that is OK. There is definitely life here, but everywhere else is a question mark. For all we know, this might be the galactic Paris.

3. FOR A SPIRAL GALAXY, IT'S PRETTY TYPICAL …

If you looked at all the spiral galaxies in the local volume of the universe, the Milky Way wouldn't stand out as being much different than any other. "As galaxies go, the Milky Way is pretty ordinary for its type," Steve Majewski, a professor of astronomy at the University of Virginia and the principal investigator on the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE), tells Mental Floss. "It's got a pretty regular form. It's got its usual complement of star clusters around it. It's got a supermassive black hole in the center, which most galaxies seem to indicate they have. From that point of view, the Milky Way is a pretty run-of-the-mill spiral galaxy."

4. …AND YET IT STANDS OUT AMONG ALL GALAXIES.

On the other hand, he tells Mental Floss, spiral galaxies in general tend to be larger than most other types of galaxies. "If you did a census of all the galaxies in the universe, the Milky Way would seem rather unusual because it is very big, our type being one of the biggest kinds of galaxies that there are in the universe." From a human perspective, the most important thing about the Milky Way is that it definitely managed to produce life. If they exist, the creatures in Andromeda, the galaxy next door (see #9), probably feel the same way about their own.

5. FIGURING OUT ITS STRUCTURE IS LIKE MARCHING IN A HALFTIME SHOW.


John McSporran, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

We have a very close-up view of the phenomena and forces at work in the Milky Way because we live inside of it, but that internal perspective places astronomers at a disadvantage when it comes to determining a galactic pattern. "We have a nice view of the Andromeda galaxy because we can see the whole thing laid out in front of us," says Majewski. "We don't have that opportunity in the Milky Way."

To figure out its structure, astronomers have to think like band members during a football halftime show. Though spectators in the stands can easily see the letters and shapes being made on the field by the marchers, the band can't see the shapes they are making. Rather, they can only work together in some coordinated way, moving to make these patterns and motions on the field. So it is with telescopes and stars.

6. WHEN DUST GETS IN OUR EYES, IT'S HARD TO SEE FAR.

Interstellar dust further stymies astronomers. "That dust blocks our light, our view of the more distant parts of the Milky Way," Majewski says. "There are areas of the galaxy that are relatively obscured from view because they are behind huge columns of dust that we can't see through in the optical wavelengths that our eyes work in." To ameliorate this problem, astronomers sometimes work in longer wavelengths such as radio or infrared, which lessen the effects of the dust.

7. THE MILKY WAY SPINS, BUT ITS SPEED DOESN'T ADD UP …

Astronomers can make pretty reasonable estimates of the mass of the galaxy by the amount of light they can see. They can count the galaxy's stars and calculate how much those stars should weigh. They can account for all the dust in the galaxy and all of the gas. And when they tally the mass of everything they can see, they find that it is far short of what is needed to account for the gravity that causes the Milky Way to spin.

In short, our Sun is about two-thirds of the way from the center of the galaxy, and astronomers know that it goes around the galaxy at about 144 miles per second. "If you calculate it based on the amount of matter interior to the orbit of the Sun, how fast we should be going around, the number you should get is around 150 or 160 kilometers [93–99 miles] per second," says Majewski. "Further out, the stars are rotating even faster than they should if you just account for what we call luminous matter. Clearly there is some other substance in the Milky Way exerting a gravitational effect. We call it dark matter."

8. … AND WE BLAME DARK MATTER FOR THAT.

Dark matter is a big problem in galactic studies. "In the Milky Way, we study it by looking at the orbits of stars and star clusters and satellite galaxies, and then trying to figure out how much mass do we need interior to the orbit of that thing to get it moving at the speed that we can measure," Majewski says. "And so by doing this kind of analysis for objects at different radii across the galaxy, we actually have a fairly good idea of the distribution of the dark matter in the Milky Way—and yet we still have no idea what the dark matter is."

9. THE MILKY WAY IS ON A COLLISION COURSE WITH ANDROMEDA. BUT DON'T PANIC.

andromeda galaxy
The Andromeda galaxy
ESA/Hubble & NASA

Sometime in the next 4 or 5 billion years, the Milky Way and Andromeda galaxies will smash into each other. The two galaxies are about the same size and have about the same number of stars, but there is no cause for alarm. "Even though there are 300 billion stars in our galaxy and a comparable number, or maybe more, in Andromeda, when they collide together, not a single star is expected to hit another star. The space between stars is that vast," says Majewski.

10. WE'RE THROWING EVERYTHING WE HAVE AT STUDYING IT.

There are countless spacecraft and telescopes studying the Milky Way. Most famous is the Hubble Space Telescope, while other space telescopes such as Chandra, Spitzer, and Kepler are also returning data to help astronomers unlock the mysteries of our swirling patch of stars. The next landmark telescope in development is NASA's James Webb Space Telescope. It should finally launch in 2019. Meanwhile, such ambitious projects as APOGEE are working out the structure and evolution of our spiral home by doing "galactic archaeology." APOGEE is a survey of the Milky Way using spectroscopy, measuring the chemical compositions of hundreds of thousands of stars across the galaxy in great detail. The properties of stars around us are fossil evidence of their formation, which, when combined with their ages, helps astronomers understand the timeline and evolution of the galaxy we call home. 

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science
What Pop Culture Gets Wrong About Dissociative Identity Disorder
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iStock

From the characters in Fight Club to Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, popular culture is filled with "split" personalities. These dramatic figures might be entertaining, but they're rarely (if ever) scientifically accurate, SciShow Psych's Hank Green explains in the channel's latest video. Most representations contribute to a collective misunderstanding of dissociative identity disorder, or DID, which was once known as multiple personality disorder.

Experts often disagree about DID's diagnostic criteria, what causes it, and in some cases, whether it exists at all. Many, however, agree that people with DID don't have multiple figures living inside their heads, all clamoring to take over their body at a moment's notice. Those with DID do have fragmented personalities, which can cause lapses of memory, psychological distress, and impaired daily function, among other side effects.

Learn more about DID (and what the media gets wrong about mental illness) by watching the video below.

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