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New Technique Can Spot a Heart Attack in the Making Long Before It Happens

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Cardiology experts have developed a noninvasive way of measuring the fat around a person's blood vessels, which could help determine their risk for dangerous cardiac events. The researchers described their technique today in the journal Science Translational Medicine.

Heart attacks are incredibly common, affecting around 750,000 Americans every year. Heart disease is the number one cause of mortality in the U.S., responsible for one out of every four deaths. There are many reasons for this. Among them is the difficulty of identifying at-risk patients before it's too late.

Cardiologists' current method of choice uses a metric called coronary calcification score (CCS) to measure the hardening of a patient's arteries. CCS is a reliable way to predict future heart problems, paper co-author Charalambos Antoniades said in a statement, but it has its limitations.

"When coronary calcification is detected," he said, "it is already too late, as the calcification is not reversible."

And so, rather than measuring calcification, many researchers have begun looking for a way to measure blood vessel inflammation, which is usually a pretty good—and early—predictor of heart disease.

The inflammation itself can be hard to see without entering a patient's body. But recent studies have shown that it rarely travels alone: Blood vessels that are inflamed are also often wrapped in larger fat cells than healthy vessels. 

With this link in mind, Antoniades and his colleagues decided to try measuring the fat cells instead. They reviewed computed tomography scans from 453 patients about to undergo heart surgery, and used these data to create what they call the fat attenuation index (FAI). The higher a patient's FAI, the more inflammation they had, and the more advanced or severe their heart disease. 

The researchers then compared the FAI of 40 additional patients with the results of invasive scans of the inflammation in their hearts. Sure enough, each patient's FAI matched the swelling onscreen.

There are many benefits to using FAI, the authors say. Not only is it noninvasive and accurate, but it can be used in tandem with CCS and other methods for an even more complete picture. The next step will be validating the test's safety and accuracy in clinical trials.

FAI scans "could help direct these new types of treatments to the appropriate subgroups of patients at greatest risk," Antoniades says, "reducing costs and targeting more powerful drugs to the patients who will benefit most."

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Medicine
New Cancer-Fighting Nanobots Can Track Down Tumors and Cut Off Their Blood Supply
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Scientists have developed a new way to cut off the blood flow to cancerous tumors, causing them to eventually shrivel up and die. As Business Insider reports, the new treatment uses a design inspired by origami to infiltrate crucial blood vessels while leaving the rest of the body unharmed.

A team of molecular chemists from Arizona State University and the Chinese Academy of Sciences describe their method in the journal Nature Biotechnology. First, they constructed robots that are 1000 times smaller than a human hair from strands of DNA. These tiny devices contain enzymes called thrombin that encourage blood clotting, and they're rolled up tightly enough to keep the substance contained.

Next, researchers injected the robots into the bloodstreams of mice and small pigs sick with different types of cancer. The DNA sought the tumor in the body while leaving healthy cells alone. The robot knew when it reached the tumor and responded by unfurling and releasing the thrombin into the blood vessel that fed it. A clot started to form, eventually blocking off the tumor's blood supply and causing the cancerous tissues to die.

The treatment has been tested on dozen of animals with breast, lung, skin, and ovarian cancers. In mice, the average life expectancy doubled, and in three of the skin cancer cases tumors regressed completely.

Researchers are optimistic about the therapy's effectiveness on cancers throughout the body. There's not much variation between the blood vessels that supply tumors, whether they're in an ovary in or a prostate. So if triggering a blood clot causes one type of tumor to waste away, the same method holds promise for other cancers.

But before the scientists think too far ahead, they'll need to test the treatments on human patients. Nanobots have been an appealing cancer-fighting option to researchers for years. If effective, the machines can target cancer at the microscopic level without causing harm to healthy cells. But if something goes wrong, the bots could end up attacking the wrong tissue and leave the patient worse off. Study co-author Hao Yan believes this latest method may be the one that gets it right. He said in a statement, "I think we are much closer to real, practical medical applications of the technology."

[h/t Business Insider]

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New Peanut Allergy Patch Could Be Coming to Pharmacies This Year
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About 6 million people in the U.S. and Europe have severe peanut allergies, including more than 2 million children. Now, French biotechnology company DBV Technologies SA has secured an FDA review for its peanut allergy patch, Bloomberg reports.

If approved, the company aims to start selling the Viaskin patch to children afflicted with peanut allergies in the second half of 2018. The FDA's decision comes in spite of the patch's disappointing study results last year, which found the product to be less effective than DBV hoped (though it did receive high marks for safety). The FDA has also granted Viaskin breakthrough-therapy and fast-track designations, which means a faster review process.

DBV's potentially life-saving product is a small disc that is placed on the arm or between the shoulder blades. It works like a vaccine, exposing the wearer's immune system to micro-doses of peanut protein to increase tolerance. It's intended to reduce the chances of having a severe allergic reaction to accidental exposure.

The patch might have competition: Aimmune Therapeutics Inc., which specializes in food allergy treatments, and the drug company Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc. are working together to develop a cure for peanut allergies.

[h/t Bloomberg]

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