9 Facts about Silent Spring Author Rachel Carson

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Although she spent most of her career as a marine biologist, Rachel Carson (1907–1964) is remembered mostly for raising the alarm over the dangers of pollution and pesticides. Her book Silent Spring detailed how harmful chemicals like DDT could have unintended consequences; both the work and the public’s reaction to it helped usher in the modern environmental movement. Take a look at a few facts about Carson’s inspiring life.

1. SHE PUBLISHED HER FIRST STORY AT AGE 10.

Carson’s love of nature was no doubt due to early exposure. Her family lived on 65 acres of farmland roughly 14 miles outside of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. She also loved writing: At age 10, Carson wrote a story about a downed fighter pilot, “A Battle in the Clouds,” and submitted it to St. Nicholas, a magazine geared to young writers that had also published pieces from William Faulkner and F. Scott Fitzgerald. Her story was accepted and published in 1918.

2. SHE ORIGINALLY WANTED TO MAJOR IN ENGLISH.

Carson pursued formal education with zeal, winning a scholarship to the Pennsylvania College for Women. At the time she began attending, Carson had her sights set on earning an English degree and becoming a teacher and writer. She switched her major to biology—one of only three women at the school to join that department—and later earned her M.A. in zoology from Johns Hopkins University in 1932.

3. SHE USED THE RADIO TO ADVOCATE FOR THE WORLD’S OCEANS.

In 1935, Carson’s aptitude for communicating science earned her a job with the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries. She continued to write articles for both government and mainstream publications that presented elegant arguments on the need to preserve our natural world, including the oceans. Part of her duties involved writing seven-minute radio scripts for a segment called “Romance Under the Waters.” The following year, she was promoted to junior aquatic biologist, one of only two women of such stature at the bureau. In 1952, having become the editor-in-chief for all of the bureau’s publications, she left the agency to write full-time.

4. SHE WROTE UNDER A GENDER-NEUTRAL BYLINE.

While freelancing for publications like The Baltimore Sun, Carson feared that readers would dismiss her pro-environment message if they knew the writer was a woman. Science then was a male-oriented endeavor. To reduce that chance, she published pieces under the byline “R.L. Carson.”

5. SHE MADE SCIENCE ACCESSIBLE TO A GENERAL AUDIENCE.

Carson was revered as a science writer because she turned the sterile, dull copy common in environmental research into something of interest to a wider readership. In Under the Sea-Wind, her 1941 book on marine life, Carson wrote about fish feeling fear and other animals wearing expressions. Other science writers scoffed, but those creative flourishes helped Carson deliver her work to a broader audience.

6. SHE WAS RELUCTANT TO TAKE ON THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY.

From an early age, Carson had been cognizant of the environmental effects of toxic chemicals. Her farm was near a glue factory that slaughtered horses, and the smell often compelled neighbors to abandon their porches and run indoors. Later, when Carson became a science writer, she felt the urge to warn people about studies indicating DDT could be harmful—but she knew that whoever did so would be making enemies of powerful people. Carson tried to get other writers, including E.B. White, to tackle it. When no one offered, Carson took it on herself.

7. SHE NEVER WANTED A BLANKET BAN ON CHEMICALS.

In the years following her death, Carson was sometimes criticized for helping to foster a growing hysteria about the use of pesticides like DDT. But she wasn’t the first health expert to question their impact on the environment. In 1957, five years before the publication of Silent Spring, the U.S. Forest Service banned DDT from being sprayed around select aquatic areas. Nor was Carson advocating for a complete ban. What she wanted, she said, was to make sure people were informed about the potential hazards.

8. SHE CONCEALED SERIOUS ILLNESSES.

When Carson was working on Silent Spring in the early 1960s, she was suffering from a series of maladies that sapped her strength: viral pneumonia, ulcers, and breast cancer. Knowing she was being critical of the pesticides industry, she kept her health conditions largely a secret in case her adversaries wanted to say she was blaming her problems on chemicals. True to her fears, pro-chemical businesses did lob personal attacks, calling her a communist and a cat-owning spinster.

9. SHE HAD AN ALLY IN JFK.

When Silent Spring was published in 1962, President John F. Kennedy felt it was a crucial wake-up call for the environmental movement. To help offset any pushback from the chemical industry, Kennedy announced that the Department of Agriculture, among other government agencies, would be examining the role pesticides play in human illnesses. He then announced a special advisory board to study the questions Carson posed in the book. When the results of the board’s work were published in 1963, they supported Carson’s belief that the general public should be better informed about the potential hazards of such chemicals. DDT was eventually banned entirely in 1972.

How Did 6 Feet Become the Standard Grave Depth?

iStock
iStock

It all started with the plague: The origins of “six feet under” come from a 1665 outbreak in England. As the disease swept the country, the mayor of London literally laid down the law about how to deal with the bodies to avoid further infections. Among his specifications—made in “Orders Conceived and Published by the Lord Mayor and Aldermen of the City of London, Concerning the Infection of the Plague”—was that “all the graves shall be at least six feet deep.”

The law eventually fell out of favor both in England and its colonies. Modern American burial laws vary from state to state, though many states simply require a minimum of 18 inches of soil on top of the casket or burial vault (or two feet of soil if the body is not enclosed in anything). Given an 18-inch dirt buffer and the height of the average casket (which appears to be approximately 30 inches), a grave as shallow as four feet would be fine.

A typical modern burial involves a body pumped full of chemical preservatives sealed inside a sturdy metal casket, which is itself sealed inside a steel or cement burial vault. It’s less of a hospitable environment for microbes than the grave used to be. For untypical burials, though—where the body isn’t embalmed, a vault isn’t used, or the casket is wood instead of metal or is foregone entirely—even these less strict burial standards provide a measure of safety and comfort. Without any protection, and subjected to a few years of soil erosion, the bones of the dearly departed could inconveniently and unexpectedly surface or get too close to the living, scaring people and acting as disease vectors. The minimum depth helps keep the dead down where they belong.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

This article originally appeared in 2012.

One Good Reason Not to Hold in a Fart: It Could Leak Out of Your Mouth

iStock/grinvalds
iStock/grinvalds

The next time you hold in a fart for fear of being heard by polite company, just remember this: It could leak out of your mouth instead of your butt. Writing on The Conversation, University of Newcastle nutrition and dietetics professor Clare Collins explains that pent-up gas can pass through your gut wall and get reabsorbed into your circulation. It's then released when you exhale, whether you like it or not.

“Holding on too long means the build up of intestinal gas will eventually escape via an uncontrollable fart,” Collins writes. In this case, the fart comes out of the wrong end. Talk about potty mouth.

A few brave scientists have investigated the phenomenon of flatulence. In one study, 10 healthy volunteers were fed half a can of baked beans in addition to their regular diets and given a rectal catheter to measure their farts over a 24-hour period. Although it was a small sample, the results were still telling. Men and women let loose the same amount of gas, and the average number of “flatus episodes” (a single fart, or series of farts) during that period was eight. Another study of 10 people found that high-fiber diets led to fewer but bigger farts, and a third study found that gases containing sulphur are the culprit of the world’s stinkiest farts. Two judges were tapped to rate the odor intensity of each toot, and we can only hope that they made it out alive.

Scientific literature also seems to support Collins’s advice to “let it go.” A 2010 paper on “Methane and the gastrointestinal tract” says methane, hydrogen sulfide, and other gases that are produced in the intestinal tract are mostly eliminated from the body via the anus or “expelled from the lungs.” Holding it in can lead to belching, flatulence, bloating, and pain. And in some severe cases, pouches can form along the wall of the colon and get infected, causing diverticulitis.

So go ahead and let it rip, just like nature intended—but maybe try to find an empty room first.

[h/t CBS Philadelphia]

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