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U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

9 Facts about Silent Spring Author Rachel Carson

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

Although she spent most of her career as a marine biologist, Rachel Carson (1907–1964) is remembered mostly for raising the alarm over the dangers of pollution and pesticides. Her book Silent Spring detailed how harmful chemicals like DDT could have unintended consequences; both the work and the public’s reaction to it helped usher in the modern environmental movement. Take a look at a few facts about Carson’s inspiring life.

1. SHE PUBLISHED HER FIRST STORY AT AGE 10.

Carson’s love of nature was no doubt due to early exposure. Her family lived on 65 acres of farmland roughly 14 miles outside of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. She also loved writing: At age 10, Carson wrote a story about a downed fighter pilot, “A Battle in the Clouds,” and submitted it to St. Nicholas, a magazine geared to young writers that had also published pieces from William Faulkner and F. Scott Fitzgerald. Her story was accepted and published in 1918.

2. SHE ORIGINALLY WANTED TO MAJOR IN ENGLISH.

Carson pursued formal education with zeal, winning a scholarship to the Pennsylvania College for Women. At the time she began attending, Carson had her sights set on earning an English degree and becoming a teacher and writer. She switched her major to biology—one of only three women at the school to join that department—and later earned her M.A. in zoology from Johns Hopkins University in 1932.

3. SHE USED THE RADIO TO ADVOCATE FOR THE WORLD’S OCEANS.

In 1935, Carson’s aptitude for communicating science earned her a job with the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries. She continued to write articles for both government and mainstream publications that presented elegant arguments on the need to preserve our natural world, including the oceans. Part of her duties involved writing seven-minute radio scripts for a segment called “Romance Under the Waters.” The following year, she was promoted to junior aquatic biologist, one of only two women of such stature at the bureau. In 1952, having become the editor-in-chief for all of the bureau’s publications, she left the agency to write full-time.

4. SHE WROTE UNDER A GENDER-NEUTRAL BYLINE.

While freelancing for publications like The Baltimore Sun, Carson feared that readers would dismiss her pro-environment message if they knew the writer was a woman. Science then was a male-oriented endeavor. To reduce that chance, she published pieces under the byline “R.L. Carson.”

5. SHE MADE SCIENCE ACCESSIBLE TO A GENERAL AUDIENCE.

Carson was revered as a science writer because she turned the sterile, dull copy common in environmental research into something of interest to a wider readership. In Under the Sea-Wind, her 1941 book on marine life, Carson wrote about fish feeling fear and other animals wearing expressions. Other science writers scoffed, but those creative flourishes helped Carson deliver her work to a broader audience.

6. SHE WAS RELUCTANT TO TAKE ON THE CHEMICAL INDUSTRY.

From an early age, Carson had been cognizant of the environmental effects of toxic chemicals. Her farm was near a glue factory that slaughtered horses, and the smell often compelled neighbors to abandon their porches and run indoors. Later, when Carson became a science writer, she felt the urge to warn people about studies indicating DDT could be harmful—but she knew that whoever did so would be making enemies of powerful people. Carson tried to get other writers, including E.B. White, to tackle it. When no one offered, Carson took it on herself.

7. SHE NEVER WANTED A BLANKET BAN ON CHEMICALS.

In the years following her death, Carson was sometimes criticized for helping to foster a growing hysteria about the use of pesticides like DDT. But she wasn’t the first health expert to question their impact on the environment. In 1957, five years before the publication of Silent Spring, the U.S. Forest Service banned DDT from being sprayed around select aquatic areas. Nor was Carson advocating for a complete ban. What she wanted, she said, was to make sure people were informed about the potential hazards.

8. SHE CONCEALED SERIOUS ILLNESSES.

When Carson was working on Silent Spring in the early 1960s, she was suffering from a series of maladies that sapped her strength: viral pneumonia, ulcers, and breast cancer. Knowing she was being critical of the pesticides industry, she kept her health conditions largely a secret in case her adversaries wanted to say she was blaming her problems on chemicals. True to her fears, pro-chemical businesses did lob personal attacks, calling her a communist and a cat-owning spinster.

9. SHE HAD AN ALLY IN JFK.

When Silent Spring was published in 1962, President John F. Kennedy felt it was a crucial wake-up call for the environmental movement. To help offset any pushback from the chemical industry, Kennedy announced that the Department of Agriculture, among other government agencies, would be examining the role pesticides play in human illnesses. He then announced a special advisory board to study the questions Carson posed in the book. When the results of the board’s work were published in 1963, they supported Carson’s belief that the general public should be better informed about the potential hazards of such chemicals. DDT was eventually banned entirely in 1972.

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Space
It's Official: Uranus Smells Like Farts
NASA, JPL-Caltech
NASA, JPL-Caltech

Poor Uranus: After years of being the butt of many schoolyard jokes, the planet's odor lives up to the unfortunate name. According to a new study by researchers at the University of Oxford and other institutions, published in the journal Nature Astronomy, the upper layer of Uranus's atmosphere consists largely of hydrogen sulfide—the same compound that gives farts their putrid stench.

Scientists have long suspected that the clouds floating over Uranus contained hydrogen sulfide, but the compound's presence wasn't confirmed until recently. Certain gases absorb infrared light from the Sun. By analyzing the infrared light patterns in the images they captured using the Gemini North telescope in Hawaii, astronomers were able to get a clearer picture of Uranus's atmospheric composition.

On top of making farts smelly, hydrogen sulfide is also responsible for giving sewers and rotten eggs their signature stink. But the gas's presence on Uranus has value beyond making scientists giggle: It could unlock secrets about the formation of the solar system. Unlike Uranus (and most likely its fellow ice giant Neptune), the gas giants Saturn and Jupiter show no evidence of hydrogen sulfide in their upper atmospheres. Instead they contain ammonia, the same toxic compound used in some heavy-duty cleaners.

"During our solar system's formation, the balance between nitrogen and sulfur (and hence ammonia and Uranus’s newly detected hydrogen sulfide) was determined by the temperature and location of planet’s formation," research team member Leigh Fletcher, of the University of Leicester, said in a press statement. In other words, the gases in Uranus's atmosphere may be able to tell us where in the solar system the planet formed before it migrated to its current spot.

From far away, Uranus's hydrogen sulfide content marks an exciting discovery, but up close it's a silent but deadly killer. In large enough concentrations, the compound is lethal to humans. But if someone were to walk on Uranus without a spacesuit, that would be the least of their problems: The -300°F temperatures and hydrogen, helium, and methane gases at ground level would be instantly fatal.

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Feeling Anxious? Just a Few Minutes of Meditation Might Help
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Some say mindfulness meditation can cure anything. It might make you more compassionate. It can fix your procrastination habit. It could ward off germs and improve health. And it may boost your mental health and reduce stress, anxiety, depression, and pain.

New research suggests that for people with anxiety, mindfulness meditation programs could be beneficial after just one session. According to Michigan Technological University physiologist John Durocher, who presented his work during the annual Experimental Biology meeting in San Diego, California on April 23, meditation may be able to reduce the toll anxiety takes on the heart in just one session.

As part of the study, Durocher and his colleagues asked 14 adults with mild to moderate anxiety to participate in an hour-long guided meditation session that encouraged them to focus on their breathing and awareness of their thoughts.

The week before the meditation session, the researchers had measured the participants' cardiovascular health (through data like heart rate and the blood pressure in the aorta). They evaluated those same markers immediately after the session ended, and again an hour later. They also asked the participants how anxious they felt afterward.

Other studies have looked at the benefits of mindfulness after extended periods, but this one suggests that the effects are immediate. The participants showed significant reduction in anxiety after the single session, an effect that lasted up to a week afterward. The session also reduced stress on their arteries. Mindfulness meditation "could help to reduce stress on organs like the brain and kidneys and help prevent conditions such as high blood pressure," Durocher said in a press statement, helping protect the heart against the negative effects of chronic anxiety.

But other researchers have had a more cautious outlook on mindfulness research in general, and especially on studies as small as this one. In a 2017 article in the journal Perspectives on Psychological Science, a group of 15 different experts warned that mindfulness studies aren't always trustworthy. "Misinformation and poor methodology associated with past studies of mindfulness may lead public consumers to be harmed, misled, and disappointed," they wrote.

But one of the reasons that mindfulness can be so easy to hype is that it is such a low-investment, low-risk treatment. Much like dentists still recommend flossing even though there are few studies demonstrating its effectiveness against gum disease, it’s easy to tell people to meditate. It might work, but if it doesn't, it probably won't hurt you. (It should be said that in rare cases, some people do report having very negative experiences with meditation.) Even if studies have yet to show that it can definitively cure whatever ails you, sitting down and clearing your head for a few minutes probably won't hurt.

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