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Can Dogs Eat Grapes?

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As most pet owners are well aware, most dogs will eat absolutely anything. They will snack on grass, vomit it up, and then eat that. They will inhale another dog’s pile of poop like it was a Michelin-starred meal. If humans stuck to a canine-approved diet, we would grow alarmingly ill, family members gathered around our hospital beds to keep vigil as our condition deteriorates, all while our dog munches on discarded syringes.

Despite their constitution, however, some seemingly harmless foods tend to challenge a dog's cast-iron stomachs. A common question: Can dogs eat grapes? If not, why not?

There’s absolutely no ambiguity about the former. Grapes—a fruit from the genus Vitis plant—are confirmed to be highly toxic to dogs. Ingesting even a tiny bit of a grape can, in extreme cases, lead to acute kidney failure. Your dog may also experience lethargy, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dehydration, and reduced urine output.

If your dog is suspected of having ingested a grape, urgent medical attention is necessary. You would need to induce vomiting to try and clear the grape out of the dog’s digestive tract. A veterinarian can guide you through the steps.

Whether the dog is able to upchuck or not, urgent veterinary attention is essential. The vet might use activated charcoal to absorb the grape or begin to monitor for signs of kidney damage.

All this over a grape? It might seem ridiculous given a dog’s hearty appetite for things that would make a human double over, but it’s a fact. Researchers don’t yet know why dogs react to grapes in this way, other than recognizing some component of the fruit is absorbed as a toxin in the animal’s system. This also holds true for raisins (which are actually dried grapes, of course), another seemingly harmless snack that can prove fatal for dogs.

If you ask a friend or family member whether dogs can eat grapes, they might tell you it’s breed- or size-dependent. It is not—any dog of any breed or size can have a serious reaction to grapes and raisins. You also want to avoid garlic, onions, chocolate, almonds, and macadamia nuts, For a healthy pet, be responsible and limit their diet to commercial dog food, water, and the occasional turd.

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What's the Difference Between Vanilla and French Vanilla Ice Cream?
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While you’re browsing the ice cream aisle, you may find yourself wondering, “What’s so French about French vanilla?” The name may sound a little fancier than just plain ol’ “vanilla,” but it has nothing to do with the origin of the vanilla itself. (Vanilla is a tropical plant that grows near the equator.)

The difference comes down to eggs, as The Kitchn explains. You may have already noticed that French vanilla ice cream tends to have a slightly yellow coloring, while plain vanilla ice cream is more white. That’s because the base of French vanilla ice cream has egg yolks added to it.

The eggs give French vanilla ice cream both a smoother consistency and that subtle yellow color. The taste is a little richer and a little more complex than a regular vanilla, which is made with just milk and cream and is sometimes called “Philadelphia-style vanilla” ice cream.

In an interview with NPR’s All Things Considered in 2010—when Baskin-Robbins decided to eliminate French Vanilla from its ice cream lineup—ice cream industry consultant Bruce Tharp noted that French vanilla ice cream may date back to at least colonial times, when Thomas Jefferson and George Washington both used ice cream recipes that included egg yolks.

Jefferson likely acquired his taste for ice cream during the time he spent in France, and served it to his White House guests several times. His family’s ice cream recipe—which calls for six egg yolks per quart of cream—seems to have originated with his French butler.

But everyone already knew to trust the French with their dairy products, right?

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Big Questions
How Many Rings Does Saturn Have?
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Of all the planets surrounded by rings, Saturn is the most famous. These planetary rings are massive enough that Galileo was able to see them using a simple telescope way back in 1610, though it wasn't until half a century later that another scientist was able to figure out what the "arms" Galileo saw actually were. NASA has since called them "the most recognized characteristic of any world in our solar system."

So how many rings does Saturn have, anyway? If you can see them from your backyard, there must be a lot, right?

Scientists don't know for sure exactly how many rings Saturn has. There are eight main, named ring groups that stretch across 175,000 miles, but there are far more than eight rings. These systems are named with letters of the alphabet, in order of their discovery. (Astronomers have known about ring groups A, B, and C since the 17th century, while others are newer discoveries. (The most recent was just discovered in 2009.)

The rings we can see in images of the planet—even high-resolution images—aren't single rings, per se, but are in fact comprised of thousands of smaller ringlets and can differ a lot in appearance, showing irregular ripples, kinks, and spokes. The chunky particles of ice that make up Saturn's rings vary in size from as small as a speck of dust to as large as a mountain.

While the gaps between Saturn's rings are small, the 26-mile-wide Keeler Gap is large enough to contain multiple moons, albeit very small ones. The largest ring system—the one discovered in 2009—starts 3.7 million miles away from Saturn itself and its material extends another 7.4 million miles out, though it's nearly invisible without the help of an infrared camera.

Researchers are still discovering new rings as well as new insights into the features of Saturn's already-known ring systems. In the early 1980s, NASA's Voyager missions took the first high-resolution images of Saturn and its rings, revealing previously unknown kinks in one of the narrower rings, known as the F ring. In 1997, NASA sent the Cassini orbiter to continue the space agency's study of the ringed planet, leading to the discovery of new rings, so faint that they remained unknown until Cassini's arrival in 2006. Before Cassini is sent to burn up in Saturn's atmosphere in September 2017, it's taking 22 dives through the space between the planet and its rings, bringing back new, up-close revelations about the ring system before the spacecraft dives to its death.

Though it's certainly possible to see Saturn's rings without any fancy equipment, using a low-end telescope at your house, that doesn't mean you always can. It depends on the way the planet is tilted; if you're looking at the rings edge-on, they may look like a flat line or, depending on the magnification, you might not be able to see them at all. However, 2017 happens to be a good year to see the sixth planet, so you're in luck.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

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