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Will McGough

This is Where Tar Comes From

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Will McGough

Pitch Lake is located on the southwest side of Trinidad (see above photo), but a visitor will probably feel like they’re on the moon at times. Called Tierra de Brea, it is a natural deposit of asphalt, and sometimes referred to as a "tar pit." It's true—you can literally stick a stick into the ground, pull it up, and with it will come what looks like tar. Stand in one place too long, and you’ll feel your shoes begin to sink in and create an imprint.

According to most histories, Sir Walter Raleigh was shown the lake by locals when he arrived in Trinidad in search of El Dorado, the fabled city of gold. He found the tar to be great for caulking for his ships, and was credited with its discovery when he returned home with several barrels.

Trinidad's Pitch Lake is one of five of its kind. There are three others in California and one more in Venezuela. (Although there are smaller deposits of asphalt found in various locations around the world, these are the only lakes.) Pitch Lake is the biggest, measuring 246 feet deep and about 99 acres in size.

The second-largest lake, Lake Bermudez in Venezula, halted its commercial mining operations back in the 1930s, and the pit in Los Angeles is dedicated to archaeological research and the preservation of fossils. The area in Carpinteria is just south of where I used to live in Santa Barbara, and its presence is felt along the coast. I can tell you firsthand that there were many days when I walked out of the ocean near Santa Barbara and had tar on the bottom of my feet and bathing suit. And I still have the stained suits to prove it.

Ironically enough, despite having such a supply of asphalt on hand, Trinidad has some of the worst roads in the Caribbean—the country is an aggressive exporter of its product for road and runway construction in Europe and the United States. According to our guide, scientists predict that there's about a 400-year supply left underground—which really isn't that long, although I suppose it gives Trinidad plenty of time to patch up a few potholes if they so choose. Another interesting piece of trivia is that the "pitch"—another name for the tar—is where the phrase "pitch black" comes from, similar to the descriptions “red rose,” “sky blue,” and “snow white.”

There’s a picture under a hut outside of the visitor’s center that shows a man who had been in up to his waist—the pitch sucking him in like quicksand—but unfortunately they weren’t willing to let me become the second person to go that deep. (I’m weird like that.) Instead, I settled for a walking tour and a quick dip in one of the sulfur pools, making sure to leave hand and footprints in my wake. The pools are obviously bigger during the rainy summer months, but I found one deep enough to swim in during my dry-season visit in March.

Will McGough

More nerdy stuff: The pitch drop experiment in Australia is one of the longest running scientific experiments in which a “solid” piece of pitch is placed in a funnel and flows over a very long timescale. Because the viscosity of pitch is 230-billion times that of water, a droplet falls from the funnel only once every eight to 12 years. Only eight drops have fallen since the experiment was set up in 1927. In a case of very good timing, the 9th drop is expected to fall sometime this year.

Pretty cool, yeah? Now every time you turn out the lights or get in your car, you can think of Trinidad.

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Google's AI Can Make Its Own AI Now
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iStock

Artificial intelligence is advanced enough to do some pretty complicated things: read lips, mimic sounds, analyze photographs of food, and even design beer. Unfortunately, even people who have plenty of coding knowledge might not know how to create the kind of algorithm that can perform these tasks. Google wants to bring the ability to harness artificial intelligence to more people, though, and according to WIRED, it's doing that by teaching machine-learning software to make more machine-learning software.

The project is called AutoML, and it's designed to come up with better machine-learning software than humans can. As algorithms become more important in scientific research, healthcare, and other fields outside the direct scope of robotics and math, the number of people who could benefit from using AI has outstripped the number of people who actually know how to set up a useful machine-learning program. Though computers can do a lot, according to Google, human experts are still needed to do things like preprocess the data, set parameters, and analyze the results. These are tasks that even developers may not have experience in.

The idea behind AutoML is that people who aren't hyper-specialists in the machine-learning field will be able to use AutoML to create their own machine-learning algorithms, without having to do as much legwork. It can also limit the amount of menial labor developers have to do, since the software can do the work of training the resulting neural networks, which often involves a lot of trial and error, as WIRED writes.

Aside from giving robots the ability to turn around and make new robots—somewhere, a novelist is plotting out a dystopian sci-fi story around that idea—it could make machine learning more accessible for people who don't work at Google, too. Companies and academic researchers are already trying to deploy AI to calculate calories based on food photos, find the best way to teach kids, and identify health risks in medical patients. Making it easier to create sophisticated machine-learning programs could lead to even more uses.

[h/t WIRED]

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Land Cover CCI, ESA
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European Space Agency Releases First High-Res Land Cover Map of Africa
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Land Cover CCI, ESA

This isn’t just any image of Africa. It represents the first of its kind: a high-resolution map of the different types of land cover that are found on the continent, released by The European Space Agency, as Travel + Leisure reports.

Land cover maps depict the different physical materials that cover the Earth, whether that material is vegetation, wetlands, concrete, or sand. They can be used to track the growth of cities, assess flooding, keep tabs on environmental issues like deforestation or desertification, and more.

The newly released land cover map of Africa shows the continent at an extremely detailed resolution. Each pixel represents just 65.6 feet (20 meters) on the ground. It’s designed to help researchers model the extent of climate change across Africa, study biodiversity and natural resources, and see how land use is changing, among other applications.

Developed as part of the Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Land Cover project, the space agency gathered a full year’s worth of data from its Sentinel-2A satellite to create the map. In total, the image is made from 90 terabytes of data—180,000 images—taken between December 2015 and December 2016.

The map is so large and detailed that the space agency created its own online viewer for it. You can dive further into the image here.

And keep watch: A better map might be close at hand. In March, the ESA launched the Sentinal-2B satellite, which it says will make a global map at a 32.8 feet-per-pixel (10 meters) resolution possible.

[h/t Travel + Leisure]

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