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12 Secrets of Video Game Testers

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Video game testers are an essential part of making sure that products in the $91 billion gaming industry are as bug-free as possible before (and even after) they hit shelves. Testers, who may work for game studios, publishers, or console companies, find glitches and report them to the game’s developers. We spoke to a few testers to find out what the job really entails, from the insanely long hours and lack of job security to the reason they need to embrace imperfection.

1. THEY ANSWER TO MANY NAMES.

Companies use a variety of titles to refer to video game testers: testers, game testers, or the slightly more elaborate Quality Assurance (QA) testers. Testers who also write computer code to automate parts of the testing process are called Software Development Engineers in Test (SDETs). The title “play tester,” however, refers to an entirely different job, as Jason W. Bay, the author of Land a Job as a Video Game Tester, tells Mental Floss. “That’s when a game company brings in non-employees for a few hours to try a game that's under development and give their feedback to the designers,” he says. “It’s more like what standard software companies call usability testing.”

2. IT'S NOT NECESSARILY FUN.

If testing video games seems like a fun, easy job, think again. In reality, testers need huge doses of patience and diligence to deal with the repetitive and often tedious nature of the job. “Testers spend most of their time testing the game long before it’s finished, and long before it starts to become a fun experience,” Bay says. “Even after the game is developed enough to start being fun, the testing assignments often aren’t fun at all,” he explains.

Testers may have to walk their character around a forest, for example, to look for any trees that have missing textures. They then record the coordinates in a spreadsheet so an artist can fix them later. “It’s mind-numbing work and can take days to accomplish,” Bay says. Additionally, most game testers don’t get to choose the games they work on, so they may be working for months on a game they don’t like. And if the game crashes in a specific spot due to a programming error, testers have to start the game over to try to recreate the steps that led to the crash.

3. THEY OFTEN WORK INSANELY LONG HOURS.

A man in a darkened room playing a video game with a pizza box nearby

Because video game companies adhere to tight release schedules, game testers are usually extremely busy in the months leading up to a game’s release. Bayaar Lo-Borjiged, a former QA Tester who’s now the CEO of Skull Fire Games, tells Mental Floss that late hours and terrible diets are very common, especially during crunch time. “It is not uncommon to work from 9 a.m. to 9 a.m. the next day,” he says. Besides sitting in front of screens all day (and night), many game testers suffer from sleep deprivation. They may chug caffeine and eat junky convenience foods to stay awake and endure the stress. “I hated crunch time so much. During crunch time you have no life, even less so than before,” Lo-Borjiged says.

4. THEY DON’T NEED ANY SPECIALIZED EDUCATION.

Although some game testers have college degrees or certificates in fields such as computer science, software testing, or game design, most testing jobs don’t require any higher education background. Besides having knowledge of how to play video games, game testers only need good vision, fast reflexes, and suitable writing skills. Because game testing is an entry-level job, most game testers start their video game industry careers in testing but hope to eventually work their way up to more advanced software development or design roles.

5. THEIR JOB SECURITY ISN’T GREAT …

“The biggest thing about being a game tester is that there is no job security at all,” Lo-Borjiged says. “As a game tester you are expendable. At any point in time for any reason whatsoever [your employer] can replace you.” Many game testers work as contract-to-hires, meaning that a company will only hire them as a full-time employee after a few months of satisfactory work performance. And a large pool of young and eager aspiring game testers means that companies often fire workers or choose not to hire them as full-time employees. So many game testers work at multiple video game companies throughout a calendar year, moving to a new company once a project ends.

6. … AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR PROMOTION ARE LIMITED.

A group of developers brainstorming an augmented reality game.

Although Lo-Borjiged worked his way up from game testing to UI design, his experience is not common. “A lot of people will probably work as a game tester their entire careers,” he says. “To work your way out of testing you really, really have to stand out and that is hard given how many other testers there can be from company to company.” After several years of working in testing, some game testers take on more responsibilities (and a higher salary) as testing leads or managers, become game designers or producers, or decide to leave the video game industry altogether.

7. THEY’RE AN UNUSUALLY TIGHT-KNIT GROUP.

The long hours and office politics make it easy for game testers to befriend one another and create a tight-knit community. “Testing groups are often separated from the rest of the game development team both physically and socially, and frankly the dev teams often treat them like second-class citizens,” Bay says. “That shared sense of feeling like outsiders can build a strong camaraderie.”

When he was working on a Harry Potter game for Windows, Bay and his fellow testers had to return to the office each night (after working a full day) to perform tests before the game was sent to the publisher. “To lift our spirits, I started bringing a 12-pack of beer each time, and that made it feel more like an evening of hanging out with friends rather than an evening of working overtime,” Bay says. “I’m still in touch with people that I tested games with 15 years ago, and some of them are life-long friends.”

8. PERFECTIONISTS NEED NOT APPLY.

The back of a man's head with a video game on his monitor in front of him.

If you buy a new video game and it has glitches, don’t be so quick to blame game testers. “Most games are tied to a strict release deadline, and development teams rarely have time to fix everything. Occasionally, they don't even have time to fix all of the crashes, which is one reason so many games receive several patches in the weeks immediately after they’re released,” Bay says.

Even if game testers spot and report glitches, there’s no guarantee that the development team will have the time or desire to fix the errors. And the process of fixing errors can introduce entirely new bugs to the game. Nevertheless, after a game is in stores many testers work long hours to recreate errors reported by players so the development team can fix them and release patches that players at home can download.

9. THEY MIGHT MEET THEIR GAMING HEROES.

Despite the stresses of the job, game testers do enjoy some gaming-related perks. “My favorite part of the job was the ability to see how new games were made, everything from the planning process to the early stage of development to the final finished product,” Lo-Borjiged says.

Besides getting to play games that haven’t yet been released, testers might also learn about a game’s cheat codes, Easter Eggs, and secret levels. But they generally can’t share this information with anyone else—most companies make them sign NDAs when they’re hired.

Some game testers also get to enjoy bigger perks. A huge Metal Gear fan, Lo-Borjiged had a Metal Gear shrine on his desk and got the thrill of a lifetime when Hideo Kojima, the game’s creator, visited his office one day. “I was able to meet one of gaming's biggest legends, and he saw my Metal Gear shrine. It was a great moment for me,” Lo-Borjiged says.

10. THERE WAS A REALITY SHOW DEDICATED TO THEM.

In 2010, the first season of The Tester debuted on PlayStation Network. The reality show depicted contestants competing with one another for a job as a QA game tester at Sony Entertainment. Each episode featured challenges and competitions that tested contestants’ communication skills, hand-eye coordination, and even willingness to get cockroaches dumped on their heads. The show ran for three seasons, and most contestants said it was a good opportunity to network and try to begin their gaming careers.

11. SOMETIMES THEY GET TO USE MORE UNUSUAL SKILLS.

Computer and gaming skills are vital, but some game testers get the opportunity to use less-obvious skills for their job. In 2003, Michael Larsen was hired as a game tester for Karaoke Revolution, in part due to his singing skills. “None of the testers were able to test the game at the Expert mode level. For this purpose, they needed to hire testers that could, well, really sing,” he writes on his blog. Larsen also lent his singing skills to the game when he recorded the guide vocal for “China Grove” by the Doobie Brothers—players who choose to sing along to that song's guide vocal can hear his voice.

12. SOME OF THEM LOSE THEIR LOVE OF VIDEO GAMES.

Do the countless hours working on video games make game testers lose their love of gaming? Yes and no. An anonymous QA tester revealed in a Reddit AMA that game testers typically go through phases of playing games for fun and avoiding them. “Sometimes you are really excited about a game you are working on, a type of game you have never played before, so you go home and play a bunch of other similar games for research,” she writes.

During crunch times, though, most game testers have neither the time nor the desire to play games for fun, and they may get burned out on gaming. “A lot of us would still play video games in our spare time despite working on them,” Lo-Borjiged says. “I have, however, met a few people that did get burnt out and those people would leave game testing and never play another video game again.”

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15 Secrets of Commercial Divers
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Boris Horvat, AFP/Getty Images

Imagine some of the most physically demanding jobs available—supply line installation, construction, welding—and then imagine doing them underwater. That’s the life of a commercial diver, a rigorously trained professional who undertakes everything from bridge repairs to oil line maintenance. To get a better sense of this often difficult and dangerous work, Mental Floss spoke to several commercial divers for their thoughts on everything from the perils of decompression to swimming in sewage. Here’s what they had to say about a life in flippers.

1. DIVING DEEP CAN PRODUCE EUPHORIA (AND A WEIRD VOICE).

Commercial divers receive specialized training—either in the military or at diving instructional schools—to learn how to function hundreds of feet below the surface. The lower a diver goes, the more water pressure increases, and the greater the challenges. Jeremy, a commercial diver out of Louisiana who repairs and installs equipment for oil companies, says that working in such conditions can lead to physical exhaustion, pulled muscles, and a feeling of pressure on the lungs.

Plunging to a depth in excess of 100 feet can also result in nitrogen narcosis, which some refer to as "raptures of the deep" or the "Martini effect." It's caused when divers receive a higher concentration of nitrogen from their air supply due to the effects of the water pressure on the gas. (The air systems that commercial divers use allow them to breathe normally by providing air at a pressure equal to that of the water, but the lower they go, the denser the gas gets, and thus the higher the concentration.)

“It makes you feel drunk or euphoric,” Jeremy says of the narcosis. “The solution is to switch from a nitrogen-oxygen supply to helium and oxygen.” That cures the over-inhalation of nitrogen, but when a diver comes back to the surface or to a decompression chamber, their voice will be altered. “It’s an Alvin and the Chipmunks thing,” Jeremy explains. Some diving teams will use voice augmentation to de-scramble the high-pitched squeals when divers are communicating with the surface.

2. ABOUT HALF A DOZEN OF THEM DIE EACH YEAR.

A diver works with a cable on an underwater construction job
Boris Horvat, AFP/Getty Images

Most commercial diving is centered around underwater construction—often repairing or replacing infrastructure that facilitates water, oil, or electrical supplies. Divers are frequently charged with digging trenches to bury electrical lines using high-pressure water blasts to excavate the ocean floor. If these trenches collapse, it can result in a catastrophic situation; the cave-in can trap and bury a diver, clogging their regulator or causing them to take off their helmet in a panic, which eliminates their air supply. Jeremy says a number of divers die every year in such cave-ins.

If divers can avoid that fate, they still have to worry about a number of other ways they can meet an untimely end. “We use cranes and those can fall or drop their load on you,” Jeremy says. Cutting into “live” pipelines can also cause explosions, as can using tools that displace hydrogen from the water. In an enclosed space like a ship or supply pipe, that collected hydrogen could catch a spark and explode. “That could blow your helmet off or into pieces,” he says. All in all, 25 commercial divers died on the job between 2011 and 2014, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics; another 310 suffered nonfatal injuries or illnesses.

3. THE DEEPER THEY GO, THE MORE THEY EARN.

Diving jobs vary in pay according to risk, duration, and other variables, but generally, a diver’s base pay is usually supplemented with “depth pay.” The further down they go, the more they can make.

“It’s basically about a dollar a foot,” Jeremy says. “After 150 feet, the price can double to $2 a foot. Added on to regular pay, a 12-hour day can add up.” A diver working at 300 feet might net $1000 in a shift. Saturation divers, who can go 1000 feet down and are required to live off-shift in a chamber pressurized to the surrounding water in order to avoid decompression sickness, or the “bends,” can make even more.

4. SOMETIMES THEIR SUITS ARE HEATED.

Going deeper into the water means enduring more frigid conditions. To offset plummeting temperatures, divers need a way to keep their suits warm. “Below 80 feet, it gets cold,” Jeremy says. “We either pump water into a wet suit or wear a hot-water suit.” The former allows water to come in and make contact with the diver's body, typically from a heated source at the surface; the latter has water channels throughout the suit that branch out and keep divers from getting too cold. Because hot water suits can maintain a more consistent temperature than delivering warm water from above, they are most often used at 200 feet and lower depths.

5. THEY CAN WIELD FIRE UNDERWATER.

Most tools meant for underwater use are hydraulic (involving the use of water or other liquids), since they’re largely unaffected by water pressure. Fuel-powered or pneumatic tools (those that involve the use of gas) don’t really work, but divers can still make use of jackhammers, chainsaws, and other devices you’d find in an above-ground construction job. Others, however, need to be adapted.

“In my opinion, the most interesting adaptation is the BROCO torch,” says Brian, a diver based in New England. The BROCO torch uses direct current to ignite a magnesium rod and oxygen mixture that burns at approximately 10,000 degrees and can cut through metal like butter, even underwater. (A/C, or alternating current, is what we use in our homes—but because the direction of the current reverses many times a second, Brian explains, it can freeze the diver in place while electrocuting them, making it too dangerous for underwater use.)

6. THEY MIGHT FIND DEAD BODIES.

A human skull sits half-buried in sand
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According to Jeremy, many recovery dives for people suspected of drowning fall under the purview of local law enforcement. Still, commercial divers can encounter someone who’s wound up in a watery grave. “I’ve done helicopter recovery jobs,” he says, referring to crashed aircraft that can harbor passengers. Once, while working on an oil rig, he stumbled upon a dead scuba diver. “It was more of a skeleton in a scuba suit,” he says. If a diver does find a corpse, they're unlikely to ever know the history of how the body got there; such discoveries are required to be passed on to the Coast Guard for investigation.

7. THEY CAN WIND UP FEEDING FISH.

A school of fish swim in the ocean
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“We encounter marine life all the time,” says Mike, a commercial diver who now works primarily in and around the Great Lakes. “When working the ocean, if we are cleaning off marine growth, sometimes you will get some fish that come up and eat what you are cleaning off.” Mike says that commercial divers frequently spot sharks, barracudas, and other potentially dangerous sea dwellers, but the animals generally don't care much about humans. They’re even less likely to approach if the workers are using torches.

8. THEY SOMETIMES SWIM IN UTTER FILTH …

A common component of commercial diving, HAZMAT (hazardous material) diving involves working in contaminated water. That could mean anything from a lake affected by nearby lawn chemicals to checking equipment at a nuclear reactor. If it could kill or poison you, a diver has probably swum in it.

This kind of work requires a special approach. Brian says that those who venture into higher-risk HAZMAT diving usually wear a positive pressure diving helmet; since the pressure inside the helmet is greater than the pressure in the water outside, the helmet helps keep hazardous material from entering. HAZMAT divers also wear a rubber dry suit that fully seals the diver's entire body, unlike normal wet suits, which allow water to make contact with the wearer. Support staff will also decontaminate the HAZMAT diver after the job, scrubbing their suit free of harmful materials before the diver undresses.

9. … INCLUDING SEWAGE.

An overhead shot of a sewage treatment plant
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Those stories you may have heard about people diving into sewage treatment plants to repair equipment? Those would be commercial divers, who occasionally brave the psychological challenge of being submerged in poop. Because it's usually impossible to see in a sea of feces, divers will study reference photos of empty tanks before going in. They'll suit up in sealed dry suits and typically will weigh themselves down in order to sink through the dense liquid; once they're in position, they work by feel. “Both the sewage jobs I dove on, it was repairing a masticator blade,” Mike says. “Picture a giant blender that makes solids less solid. I don't do it anymore because of the health risks.” A rip or tear in a diver's suit can introduce a litany of dangerous bacteria into their body: In addition to your standard Salmonella and Cryptosporidium parasites, such vile muck can also harbor hepatitis, Norwalk virus, E. coli, and assorted fungi [PDF].

10. DAWN SOAP IS A LIFESAVER.

Dawn dishwashing liquid is a must-have on diving expeditions. It can get diving suits and skin free of oil, and can even help divers cope with parasitic pests. When Jeremy was working on a mile-long pipeline near New Orleans, the shallow water resulted in workers getting infested with parasites carried by nutria, a semiaquatic rodent. “The hookworms will dig into your skin, die, and leave a big red mark,” he says. Splashing Dawn soap gets rid of the itch immediately. (If irritation persists, divers might need to seek anti-inflammatory treatment from a dermatologist.)

11. THEY WORRY ABOUT BEING SUCKED INTO A VACUUM OF DEATH.

Divers are frequently in violation of the laws of nature. Humans, after all, were never meant to thrive (or survive) underwater, particularly at more pressurized depths. Many divers fear encountering Delta P, or differential pressure—a vacuum that’s far higher in pressure than their current environment, and is created by intersecting water bodies as a result of opening a channel like a pipe. “Delta P is vacuum-like suction much like you would imagine from when the cabin of an airplane ruptures, but at a much greater magnitude,” Brian says. “It can be very difficult to detect until you are already too close, and can trap the diver at depth or even kill them instantly.” The unfortunate crab in the video above is an example of how differential pressure can ruin your day.

12. THEY SOMETIMES GO DIVING INSIDE WATER TOWERS.

Those water towers you see in populated areas that stand on stilts hundreds of feet up in the air? Townships need to periodically check them for sediment levels to maintain water quality. That’s when they call in a commercial diver, who needs to add "not afraid of heights" to their skill set. “You have to climb all the way up, get into your wet suit, measure the sediment with a ruler, and clear it out with a [suctioning device called an] airlift." Jeremy says. And that's not the only lofty prospect for a diver: Jeremy notes that some oil rigs stretch 100 feet in the air. Divers without seniority may be expected to carry out repairs or work at or near the top, instead of actually diving.

13. THEY CARRY KNIVES.

A diver straps on a knife
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No, it’s not to duel with sharks. “While diving, I carry a razor-sharp knife for emergency purposes only,” Brian says. In an urgent situation, it could be used for "cutting anything from old fishing line to my own dive umbilical—the air hose and lifeline.” The latter rarely happens, unless the diver gets it snagged or it becomes compressed. In the event of a hose failure, divers have a "bailout bottle," a supplemental tank they can switch to in case of emergency.

14. THEY CAN BE UNDERWATER BUT NOT ACTUALLY IN THE WATER.

A diver works with a torch underwater
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Not every dive requires divers to swim while working. For jobs that require meticulous attention to detail for repair or where welding is required, diving teams can set up positive pressure habitats that isolate the problem area and allow the diver to work out of water. “You use air pressure to push water out of the habitat, which is in two pieces,” Jeremy says. Inside, a diver would trade their helmet for a welding mask. Because it can take a day or more to set up the habitat for a job that might take only one or two hours, habitat work is used only in cases where there aren't any other options.

15. THEY STILL GO SWIMMING FOR FUN.

Like anything done recreationally, diving can begin to seem routine if it's performed on a daily basis. While some divers get their fill of water by working 12-hour days for weeks at a stretch, some still enjoy going under in their free time. “While my career has definitely diminished the novelty of being in such an alien environment, I still love to dive recreationally,” Brian says. “Commercial diving is exhausting work, typically in dark, low-visibility water with a particular task in mind, while recreational diving is often more about exploration and sight-seeing. I would argue that the difference is not unlike a professional runner going on a beautiful hike in their free time.”

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11 Secrets of Romance Writers
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Some readers may snicker at book covers featuring aerobicized men and titles like The Firefighter’s Woman or The Bull Rider’s Christmas Baby. But if it weren’t for the steamy, escapist fantasy of romance novels, a healthy portion of the publishing industry would cease to exist: According to the Romance Writers of America (RWA), romantic fiction brings in $1.08 billion annually and accounts for 13 percent of all fiction sales in the marketplace.

What keeps readers coming back for more? We asked some of the genre’s top authors for insight into the “secret baby" trope, why pen names are necessary, and the one rule of romance that can never, ever be violated.

1. THEY WEAR PERIOD CLOTHING.

Novelist Shelley Adina (A Lady of Resources, A Lady of Integrity) writes historical, Amish, and steampunk-themed fiction, just a few of the many sub-categories that appeal to niche audiences. To better understand her characters, Adina dresses in period outfits to gather what she calls “tactile details.”

“I like to feel how a heroine would feel in the clothes,” she says. “I’ve been laced into a proper corset and you realize what kind of dance steps you can do, or why a lady’s back never touches a chair—a tight corset won't allow it."

2. THE REASON THEY USE PEN NAMES ISN'T WHAT YOU THINK.

Covers of two romance novels by Shelley Adina
Shelley Adina

The authors of romance novels don't use pen names out of embarrassment. Adina (a.k.a. Adina Senft) says that pseudonyms—many authors have more than one—help readers compartmentalize writers who generate multiple series. “People who read Amish fiction may not read steampunk,” she says. Another, bigger reason: Bookstore software can use “kill orders” on authors who don’t sell a certain number of titles. If they fall below parity, retailers will automatically stop ordering more copies from that author. “If that happens,” she says, “you have to reinvent yourself with a new name.”

3. THEY’LL DIGITALLY REVISE THEIR WORK AFTER PUBLISHING IT.

The analog publishing model has traditionally been one of permanence: Once a book is in print and in readers' hands, there's no going back. But romance novel readers are a very particular clientele with certain expectations about how they’d like their protagonists to behave—and the self-published digital distribution model that's popular within the genre allows for a little customization. Author Heather C. Leigh (the Famous series) found that out when her first books featured a heroine who was a little too acerbic. “My first three books sold well, but there were critiques that my female lead was too sarcastic,” she says. “I understood and took it out. I don’t mind making work better based on feedback.”

4. COVER MODELS OFTEN LOSE THEIR HEADS.

The covers of two romance novels by Heather C. Leigh
Heather C. Leigh

Despite seeing hundreds of new titles published every month, the romance genre still manages to find new ways to visualize their shirtless male protagonists. In many cases, though, the beefcake winds up getting decapitated. “A lot of times, the man will be turned away or cut off at the forehead,” says author Eliza Night (The Conquered Bride series). “Readers want to imagine his looks in their own mind.” Grooming is also a necessity. “I had a cover with chest hair once. My readers did not like it.”

5. THEY HAVE BONUS SCENES.

Self-published authors (who make up about two-thirds of the total romance e-book revenue on Amazon) spend much of their time marketing their work. To help maintain interest from their existing readership, some send out email newsletters with updates on new titles and include exclusive passages that can enhance the experience of a previous book. “My first book was about an actor who had to do a love scene with a woman he hated,” Leigh says. “It was never going to be in the book because that was from his girlfriend’s point of view, but I got a chance to write it as a bonus.”

6. THEY WANT READERS TO BECOME WRITERS.

While resources for aspiring writers of all genres are plentiful, the romance field makes an exceptional attempt to recruit new talent. Industry interest group RWA doubles as a conduit between established writers and novices, hosting conferences and panels on the best ways to break in. “We don’t live in a competitive hierarchy,” Adina says. “There are so many readers with so many diverse tastes. It’s a big community where we support one another.”

7. THEY GET HELP FROM THE AMISH.

An Amish woman walking in a field
iStock

While the Amish sub-genre has received media attention for its peculiarity, Adina doesn't believe it's so unusual: She says readers are attracted to a pastoral environment “without having to leave their wired-up house.” For accuracy’s sake, the author has enlisted an Amish reader to vet her titles for details. The popularity of the books “mystifies them,” she says. “They don’t understand the interest. They just hope the books might be able to point people to God.”  

8. THE “SECRET BABY” TROPE IS A READER FAVORITE.

Readers like resourceful women and skilled, wealthy love interests—and they especially like it when the former keeps their baby a secret from the latter. “The trope is that the hero and heroine have an affair, she gets pregnant, never tells him, and he comes back around five, 10, or 20 years later and finds out,” Adina says. “Reunion stories are popular. It’s the appeal of a responsible man.”

9. THEY’RE HISTORY GEEKS.

The cover of a romance novel by Eliza Knight
Eliza Knight

Knight cringes at the idea romance authors do little more than transcribe their own lurid fantasies. A self-described “history geek,” she travels frequently for research into Scottish history. “Most of us who write history nerd out on it,” she says. While once writing about a zeppelin-riding heroine, Adina jumped into one that offered rides over Silicon Valley to see how it would feel. She also got her motorcycle license for the same reason. “We’re serious about it,” Adina says. “We’re not sitting around in housecoats with barking Pomeranians.”

10. THEY’D APPRECIATE NOT BEING ASKED ABOUT THEIR SEX LIFE.

Many romance authors have at least one story to tell about people in their private life finding out they write for the genre and subsequently losing any sense of boundaries. “Strangers have asked me, ‘Do you test out scenes before you write them?’” Leigh says. “It’s like they lose a filter. It’s not real life. J.K. Rowling isn’t a wizard.”

11. THERE’S ONE RULE THAT CAN NEVER BE BROKEN.

While writing instructors invariably have all kinds of techniques for nourishing a story, the romance genre spells it out in an unequivocal manner. According to the RWA, nothing can be considered a “romance novel” without a central love story (naturally) and what authors have come to refer to as the Happily Ever After ending, or HEA. “Romance is a courtship story,” Adina says. “Readers expect the bond will be created at the end of the book. If not, it’s Nicholas Sparks or Romeo and Juliet. It would be like having a mystery where the detective doesn’t solve the case.”

This story originally appeared in 2016.

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