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Wikimedia // Public Domain
Wikimedia // Public Domain

15 Things You Should Know About Jacques-Louis David's 'Napoleon Crossing the Alps'

Wikimedia // Public Domain
Wikimedia // Public Domain

18th century French painter Jacques-Louis David possessed an incredible talent and a deep admiration for Napoleon Bonaparte. Both are clear in the striking portrait Napoleon Crossing the Alps, but few know that this painting was a defining moment for both its artist and subject.

1. NAPOLEON CROSSING THE ALPS MARKED A NEW ERA FOR FRANCE.

David's history-based works not only marked political movements in France but also contributed to them. His Death of Socrates (1787) fanned the flames of rebellion, while The Death of Marat (1793) memorialized its subject as a martyr of the French Revolution. At the turn of the 19th century, France was on the rise thanks to Napoleon Bonaparte, who'd staged a coup d’état against the revolutionary government.

2. IT WAS INSPIRED BY NAPOLEON'S VICTORY AT THE BATTLE OF MARENGO.

In the spring of 1800, Napoleon's forces trekked through the Alps by way of the Great St. Bernard Pass for a surprise attack on Austrian armies in what is now northern Italy. On June 14, the Battle of Marengo pushed the Austrians out of the territory completely, and bolstered Napoleon's position in European politics. Painted over four months in 1800 and 1801, Napoleon Crossing The Alps was intended to illustrate this important victory.

3. IT WAS CREATED AS AN ACT OF DIPLOMACY.

Looking to strengthen relations with France, Charles IV of Spain met with Bonaparte for an exchange of grand gifts. Napoleon offered pistols made in Versailles, fine dresses sewn in Paris, jewels, and armor. Charles IV presented 16 Spanish horses from own stables, portraits of himself and his queen painted by Spanish artist Francisco Goya, and Napoleon Crossing The Alps, which the king commissioned from David, a renowned French painter.

4. IT WAS NOT DAVID'S FIRST ATTEMPT AT PAINTING NAPOLEON.

In 1797, David began a painting of the general meant to commemorate the peace treaty with Austria at Campo-Formio. He painted the face and sketched the body, but then abandoned the portrait and shifted his attention to The Intervention of the Sabine Women (1799). But the unfinished portrait went on to be displayed in the Louvre, and its image was used on the 100 Francs note in the 1960s.

5. NAPOLEON REFUSED TO SIT FOR THE PORTRAIT.

The self-appointed First Consul of France argued, "Nobody knows if the portraits of the great men resemble them, it is enough that their genius lives there." To overcome this obstacle, David employed an earlier portrait of Napoleon and his uniform from the Battle of Montenegro as reference. The painter had one of his sons wear the outfit while perched on a ladder to get as close to a live model as he could manage.

6. NONETHELESS, NAPOLEON HAD NOTES.

He requested an equestrian portrait, which was a genre that royalty tended to prefer. Napoleon demanded he be portrayed as "calme sur un cheval fougueux,” which translates roughly to "calm on a fiery horse." David delivered.

7. IT'S AN INACCURATE DEPICTION OF THE BATTLE OF MARENGO.

David has a history of idealizing his subjects, making them look younger, fitter, and more beautiful. Napoleon was no exception. Some suggest this youthful makeover reflects David's admiration of Napoleon. However, an even more noteworthy discrepancy is that Napoleon did not actually lead his men across the Alps. He followed a few days after, and not on a galloping horse, but on a mule better suited to the narrow path cut by his troops.

8. IN THE PAINTING, DAVID COMPARES NAPOLEON TO GREAT MILITARY ICONS.

In the lower left corner of the painting, you can see carved on the rocks: BONAPARTE, HANNIBAL, KAROLUS MAGNUS. The Carthaginian general Hannibal had crossed the intimidating mountain range during the Second Punic War in 218 BCE. When he was King of the Franks, Charlemagne (a.k.a. Karolus Magnus) crossed the Alps in 773 in his war against the Lombards. By including these names, David suggests that Napoleon and his victories will be remembered for centuries like Hannibal's and Charlemagne's.

9. NAPOLEON DIDN'T GET TO KEEP IT.

Napoleon Crossing the Alps was intended for Charles IV's royal palace in Madrid. There, it was hung among paintings of other great military leaders as a symbol of Spain and France's friendly relationship.

10. NAPOLEON LIKED THE PAINTING SO MUCH, HE WANTED MORE.

Not just more portraits of himself, mind you. Napoleon wanted David to make this exact composition three more times. Since the original was in Charles IV's palace, Napoleon commissioned more for his domain. He wanted one hung in his preferred home Château de Saint-Cloud, one in the library at Les Invalides in Paris, and one for the palace of the Cisalpine Republic in Milan, which was then a sister republic of France. David also painted a fifth, which he kept in his studio until his death in 1825; his daughter later gifted it back to the Bonaparte family.

11. ALL FIVE PAINTINGS SHARE THREE TITLES.

The most popular is Napoleon Crossing the Alps, but Napoleon at the Saint-Bernard Pass and Bonaparte Crossing the Alps are also acceptable.

12. THERE ARE MINOR DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE FIVE PAINTINGS.

The color of Napoleon's cloak changes from the original gold to crimson. With it, the color of his horse shifts from piebald black and white in the original, to brown, or dappled grey with gold locks. And the riding accouterments—like standing martingale and girth—feature different colors and details. Likewise, David's signature shifts, and one is not signed at all.

13. NAPOLEON CROSSING THE ALPS LED TO DAVID GETTING A MAJOR PROMOTION.

By 1804, Napoleon had crowned himself emperor of France, and his preferred portrait painter was now "First Painter to the Emperor." David went on to create fawning portraits like Napoleon in his Study (1812), and Consecration of the Emperor Napoleon I and Coronation of the Empress Josephine (1805-07) for his powerful patron.

14. AFTER NAPOLEON'S FALL, DAVID WENT INTO EXILE.

When Napoleon's regime fell after his defeat at Waterloo, the French monarchy was reinstated. David was sent into exile along with all of those who voted for the death of Louis XVI back in 1792, and moved to Brussels, where he continued to paint.

15. NAPOLEON HAS HAD A DAMAGING IMPACT ON DAVID'S LEGACY.

Art historians tend to favor David's pre-Napoleonic Era works. Napoleon Crossing The Alps has been criticized for its stiffness, which makes it seem more a statue than a frozen moment. Though David would paint until the end of his life, none of his subsequent works reached the acclaim of those created in the late 1700s, like Oath of the Horatii, The Death of Socrates, and The Death of Marat. His earlier works earned him a reputation as a groundbreaker and pioneer of Neoclassicism. However, his Napoleon portraits are remembered more for their history than artistry.

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15 Confusing Plant and Animal Misnomers
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People have always given names to the plants and animals around us. But as our study of the natural world has developed, we've realized that many of these names are wildly inaccurate. In fact, they often have less to say about nature than about the people who did the naming. Here’s a batch of these befuddling names.

1. COMMON NIGHTHAWK

There are two problems with this bird’s name. First, the common nighthawk doesn’t fly at night—it’s active at dawn and dusk. Second, it’s not a hawk. Native to North and South America, it belongs to a group of birds with an even stranger name: Goatsuckers. People used to think that these birds flew into barns at night and drank from the teats of goats. (In fact, they eat insects.)

2. IRISH MOSS

It’s not a moss—it’s a red alga that lives along the rocky shores of the northern Atlantic Ocean. Irish moss and other red algae give us carrageenan, a cheap food thickener that you may have eaten in gummy candies, soy milk, ice cream, veggie hot dogs, and more.

3. FISHER-CAT

Native to North America, the fisher-cat isn’t a cat at all: It’s a cousin of the weasel. It also doesn’t fish. Nobody’s sure where the fisher cat’s name came from. One possibility is that early naturalists confused it with the sea mink, a similar-looking creature that was an expert fisher. But the fisher-cat prefers to eat land animals. In fact, it’s one of the few creatures that can tackle a porcupine.

4. AMERICAN BLUE-EYED GRASS

American blue-eyed grass doesn’t have eyes (which is good, because that would be super creepy). Its blue “eyes” are flowers that peek up at you from a meadow. It’s also not a grass—it’s a member of the iris family.

5. MUDPUPPY

The mudpuppy isn’t a cute, fluffy puppy that scampered into some mud. It’s a big, mucus-covered salamander that spends all of its life underwater. (It’s still adorable, though.) The mudpuppy isn’t the only aquatic salamander with a weird name—there are many more, including the greater siren, the Alabama waterdog, and the world’s most metal amphibian, the hellbender.

6. WINGED DRAGONFISH

This weird creature has other fantastic and inaccurate names: brick seamoth, long-tailed dragonfish, and more. It’s really just a cool-looking fish. Found in the waters off of Asia, it has wing-like fins, and spends its time on the muddy seafloor.

7. NAVAL SHIPWORM

The naval shipworm is not a worm. It’s something much, much weirder: a kind of clam with a long, wormlike body that doesn’t fit in its tiny shell. It uses this modified shell to dig into wood, which it eats. The naval shipworm, and other shipworms, burrow through all sorts of submerged wood—including wooden ships.

8. WHIP SPIDERS

These leggy creatures are not spiders; they’re in a separate scientific family. They also don’t whip anything. Whip spiders have two long legs that look whip-like, but that are used as sense organs—sort of like an insect’s antennae. Despite their intimidating appearance, whip spiders are harmless to humans.

9. VELVET ANTS

A photograph of a velvet ant
Craig Pemberton, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

There are thousands of species of velvet ants … and all are wasps, not ants. These insects have a fuzzy, velvety look. Don’t pat them, though—velvet ants aren’t aggressive, but the females pack a powerful sting.

10. SLOW WORM

The slow worm is not a worm. It’s a legless reptile that lives in parts of Europe and Asia. Though it looks like a snake, it became legless through a totally separate evolutionary path from the one snakes took. It has many traits in common with lizards, such as eyelids and external ear holes.

11. TRAVELER'S PALM

This beautiful tree from Madagascar has been planted in tropical gardens all around the world. It’s not actually a palm, but belongs to a family that includes the bird of paradise flower. In its native home, the traveler’s palm reproduces with the help of lemurs that guzzle its nectar and spread pollen from tree to tree.

12. VAMPIRE SQUID

Drawing of a vampire squid
Carl Chun, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

This deep-sea critter isn’t a squid. It’s the only surviving member of a scientific order that has characteristics of both octopuses and squids. And don’t let the word “vampire” scare you; it only eats bits of falling marine debris (dead stuff, poop, and so on), and it’s only about 11 inches long.

13. MALE FERN & LADY FERN

Early botanists thought that these two ferns belonged to the same species. They figured that the male fern was the male of the species because of its coarse appearance. The lady fern, on the other hand, has lacy fronds and seemed more ladylike. Gender stereotypes aside, male and lady Ferns belong to entirely separate species, and almost all ferns can make both male and female reproductive cells. If ferns start looking manly or womanly to you, maybe you should take a break from botany.

14. TENNESSEE WARBLER

You will never find a single Tennessee warbler nest in Tennessee. This bird breeds mostly in Canada, and spends the winter in Mexico and more southern places. But early ornithologist Alexander Wilson shot one in 1811 in Tennessee during its migration, and the name stuck.

15. CANADA THISTLE

Though it’s found across much of Canada, this spiky plant comes from Europe and Asia. Early European settlers brought Canada thistle seeds to the New World, possibly as accidental hitchhikers in grain shipments. A tough weed, the plant soon spread across the continent, taking root in fields and pushing aside crops. So why does it have this inaccurate name? Americans may have been looking for someone to blame for this plant—so they blamed Canada.

A version of this story originally ran in 2015.

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18 Tea Infusers to Make Teatime More Exciting
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Make steeping tea more fun with these quirky tea infusers.

Mental Floss has affiliate relationships with certain retailers and may receive a small percentage of any sale. But we only get commission on items you buy and don’t return, so we’re only happy if you’re happy. Thanks for helping us pay the bills!

1. SOAKING IT UP; $7.49

man-shaped tea infuser
Amazon

That mug of hot water might eventually be a drink for you, but first it’s a hot bath for your new friend, who has special pants filled with tea.

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2. A FLYING TEA BOX; $25.98

There’s no superlaser on this Death Star, just tea.

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3. SPACE STATION; $9.99

astronaut tea infuser
ThinkGeek

This astronaut's mission? Orbit the rim of your mug until you're ready to pull the space station diffuser out.

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4. BE REFINED; $12.99

This pipe works best with Earl Grey.

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5. A RIBBITING OPTION; $10.93

This frog hangs on to the side of your mug with a retractable tongue. When the tea is ready, you can put him back on his lily pad.

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6. ‘TEA’ ALL LIVE IN A YELLOW SUBMARINE; $5.95

It’s just like the movie, only with tea instead of Beatles.

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7. SHARK ATTACK; $6.99

shark tea infuser
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This fearsome shark patrols the bottom of your mug waiting for prey. For extra fun, use red tea to look like the end of a feeding frenzy.

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8. PERFECT FOR A RAINY DAY; $12.40

This umbrella’s handle conveniently hooks to the side of your mug.

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9. AN EGGCELLENT INFUSER; $5.75

cracked egg tea infuser
Amazon

Sometimes infusers are called tea eggs, and this one takes the term to a new, literal level.

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10. FOR SQUIRRELY DRINKERS; $8.95

If you’re all right with a rodent dunking its tail into your drink, this is the infuser for you.

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11. HANGING OUT; $12.85

This pug is happy to hang onto your mug and keep you company while you wait for the tea to be ready.

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12. ANOTHER SHARK OPTION; $5.99

If you thought letting that other shark infuser swim around in the deep water of your glass was too scary, this one perches on the edge, too busy chomping on your mug to worry about humans.

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13. RUBBER DUCKIE, YOU’RE THE ONE; $8.95

Let this rubber duckie peacefully float in your cup and make teatime lots of fun.

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14. DIVING DEEP; $8.25

This old-timey deep-sea diver comes with an oxygen tank that you can use to pull it out.

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15. MAKE SWEET TEA; $10

This lollipop won't actually make your tea any sweeter, but you can always add some sugar after.

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16. A SEASONAL FAVORITE; $7.67

When Santa comes, give him some tea to go with the cookies.

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17. FLORAL TEA; $14.99

Liven up any cup of tea with this charming flower. When you’re done, you can pop it right back into its pot.

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18. KEEP IT TRADITIONAL; $7.97

If you’re nostalgic for the regular kind of tea bag, you can get reusable silicon ones that look almost the same.

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