Astronauts Are Getting a Space Bakery


While bread is currently banned on the International Space Station, it will soon make its way back into astronauts’ diets thanks to Bake in Space, a German project aimed at developing a bread maker and dough that can safely be used in microgravity, as New Scientist and Atlas Obscura report.

The culinary staple is currently banned from space missions because in space, crumbs can be dangerous. Currently, if an astronaut wants a PB&J, they have to use a tortilla.

Bake in Space hopes to develop a system that can make fresh German-style bread rolls in microgravity, giving space travelers a semblance of Earthly normalcy at dinnertime. As missions to far-flung destinations like Mars become more plausible, astronauts will need to be able to feed themselves for years on end, and being able to make a fresh loaf of bread would be a lot more pleasant for a homesick crew than exclusively eating pre-packaged space food.

Bread hasn’t always been absent from space missions. A contraband sandwich on the 1965 Gemini 3 mission caused a major incident. Astronaut John Young had surreptitiously brought a corned beef sandwich onto the flight in his spacesuit. When he took it out for a bite, little bits of rye bread began floating throughout the cabin. It didn’t cause a disaster, but the crumbs could have gotten into a crewmember’s eye or into delicate equipment in the spacecraft.

Astronauts eat bread slices on the space shuttle Discovery.

Young quickly put the sandwich back into his pocket, but he got an earful about it when he returned to Earth. The U.S. House of Representatives appropriations committee held a meeting about the incident, in part because congressmen were upset that the astronauts were smuggling food into space instead of testing out the high-tech food that had been developed especially for them.

Bread did make it back into space, but it wasn’t your average loaf. While Apollo astronauts made sandwiches and ate bite-sized cinnamon bread, the bread was coated in a layer of gelatin to prevent it from crumbling. The NASA photograph above is from the 1985 Discovery space shuttle.

Bake in Space is working with engineers, food scientists, and Earth-bound bakers to develop its space bread, which is scheduled for testing on a 2018 European Space Agency trip to the International Space Station. The company has yet to develop a recipe, though, and is still working out how it will be made. The loaves will need to balance out the need for crumble-free bread with astronauts’ understandable desire not to eat rock-hard rolls. Somehow, they’ll have to come up with a way to make a fluffy bread that will remain crumb-free.

[h/t Atlas Obscura]

Live Smarter
A Simple Trick for Keeping Lemons Fresher for Longer

Lemons don't get much respect in the average refrigerator. After taking a slice or two to punch up drinks or add to a recipe, the remaining wedges can often be pushed out of view by incoming groceries and left to go to waste.

But the folks at Food52 have come up with a solution to get more use out of those lemons by keeping them fresher longer. Because citrus needs moisture in order to remain fresh, all you need to do is place your lemon in a bowl of water before putting it in the fridge.

Another idea: Put them in a sealed plastic bag and make sure you remove all the air to prevent mold growth. You'll get up to three months of freshness with this method. If your lemons are already cut into wedges, you can expect they'll last three to four days.

The "hack" also works for oranges and grapefruits. As for freezing, you can do that, too, but the resulting mushy fruit is probably best left for making juices.

[h/t Food52]

The Top 10 Pizza Chains in America

Pizza is a $45.1 billion industry in the United States. Here are the top pizza chains across this great nation, based on gross sales in 2016.


Pizza Hut is truly enormous. Raking in more than $5.75 billion in 2016, the chain is best known for its red roof architecture. The style is so distinctive that the blog Used to Be a Pizza Hut collects photos of former Pizza Hut restaurants now turned into other businesses.


With more than $5.47 billion in revenue, Domino's is nipping at Pizza Hut's heels. For decades, Domino's offered a guarantee that your pizza would arrive in 30 minutes or less, or it would be free. The policy was terminated in 1993 in the U.S., and Domino's has since focused on expanding its menu with pasta, sandwiches, and other goodies.


Photo of the exterior of a Little Caesars restaurant

Founded in 1959 by Mike and Marian Ilitch, Little Caesars focuses on carry-out pizza at ultra-competitive prices. Using slogans like "Pizza! Pizza!," "Pan! Pan!," and "Deep Deep Dish," the chain offers hot cheese pizzas for just $5.


Headquartered in Jeffersontown, Kentucky, Papa John's was the first national pizza chain to offer online ordering in the U.S., way back in 2002.


Papa Murphy's offers exclusively "take and bake" pizza, where the ingredients are put together in front of you, then you bake the pizza at home. It's the only large chain to offer this kind of pizza, and it's a smart business model—stores don't need pizza ovens!


California Pizza Kitchen

The first California Pizza Kitchen launched in 1985 in Beverly Hills, California. The focus is on gourmet pizza, including a line of relatively fancy frozen pizzas. In many locations, CPK also offers gluten-free crust as an option, making it a favorite for gluten-intolerant pizza lovers.


Pasquale “Pat” Giammarco founded Marco's Pizza in 1978. The Toledo, Ohio-based chain is now the country's fastest-growing pizza chain, with more than 800 franchised locations across the U.S. as well as in Puerto Rico, the Bahamas, and India. They specialize in what they've dubbed "Ah!thentic Italian."


In 1958, Bill Larson concluded four years of US Navy service and got a job at a pizza parlor in San Mateo, California. A year later, he founded his own: Round Table Pizza. Using a King Arthur theme, Round Table has often featured knights and shields in its logo. The knight theme originated when Larson saw drawings of King Arthur's court eating pizza.


The brainchild of two Georgia Tech students, Mellow Mushroom opened in Atlanta, Georgia as a one-off pizzeria. Today, it boasts more than 150 locations, and is regularly inching further westward.


Macaroni and cheese pizza from Cicis

Cicis is the world's largest pizza buffet chain. It features all sorts of wild stuff including a macaroni-and-cheese pizza.

Source: PMQ Pizza Magazine


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