What is the UV Index (and Why Should I Care About It)?

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iStock

We’re so used to running for cover when we hear a rumble of thunder during the summer that it’s easy to forget that we’re just as exposed to the elements under a beautiful, cloud-free sky. Whenever the Sun's out (and even when it isn't), we're at risk for sunburns, which are caused by the Sun's ultraviolet, or UV, radiation. But just how serious is that risk on a given day? That's where the UV Index comes in.

Ultraviolet radiation falls next to visible light on the electromagnetic spectrum. The two wavelengths of UV rays that can cause injury are called UVA and UVB rays. Both types are dangerous over long periods of time, but UVB rays are thought to be the most dangerous. Excessive exposure to UVA and UVB rays can cause cell death, leading to painful sunburn, or, over time, some forms of skin cancer.

Earth’s atmosphere does a pretty good job protecting us from harmful UV rays, but it doesn’t completely block them out. Most ultraviolet radiation is absorbed by the ozone layer. Ozone is gas that’s usually situated more than twice as high above sea level as the cruising altitude of a commercial airliner. In the 1970s and 1980s, there was a concerted effort to eliminate the use of chemicals that deplete the ozone layer as people began to understand what its depletion would mean: overexposure to dangerous UV rays for humans, animals, and plants.

UV Index Forecast
A map of the UV Index on June 9, 2017.
NOAA/NWS/EPA

The UV Index was developed to tell us the level of solar radiation on a particular day, and thus, how susceptible we are to a sunburn. The UV Index is an open-ended scale that starts at 0, indicating the lowest level of danger, with the risk gradually increasing through a UV Index of 10. Any value above 10 indicates an extreme risk for harm from UV rays, with sunburns and eye damage occurring in just minutes.

The index is compiled daily using factors like ozone concentration in the atmosphere, expected cloud cover, and the elevation of a certain point above sea level. Greater ozone concentrations, more clouds, and a lower elevation will help prevent UV rays from reaching the ground. A bright, hot, sunny day can easily cause the UV Index to soar above 10.

Risk from UV rays doesn’t end with sunshine pouring out of the sky. Ultraviolet radiation can also be reflected, meaning that the danger for sunburns and eye damage increases around bright surfaces like a beach or the shimmering waters of a swimming pool. If your eyes have ever hurt after looking at snow on a sunny day, that painful condition is directly caused by UV rays reflecting off of the white surface.

One easy way to protect yourself from harmful UV radiation is to cover up. But clothing and hats don't deflect all UV rays. That's where sunscreen comes in. The best sunscreen to use is one that’s rated for both UVA and UVB protection with an SPF (sun protection factor) of at least 15 or higher, according to the FDA. (The American Academy of Dermatology suggests one with an SPF of 30 or higher.) A sunscreen’s SPF doesn’t relate to the amount of time you can spend in the sun, but rather the amount of protection offered by a particular formula. An SPF of 15 blocks 93 percent of UV rays, while SPF 50 is said to block 98 percent. (Some argue that sunscreens over SPF 30 are no more effective.) Whichever SPF you choose, don't forget the sunglasses—specially rated pairs can protect your eyes from radiation, and also help you channel your inner celebrity. Sounds like a win-win to us.

What is a Polar Vortex?

Edward Stojakovic, Flickr // CC BY 2.0
Edward Stojakovic, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

If you’ve turned on the news or stepped outside lately, you're familiar with the record-breaking cold that is blanketing a lot of North America. According to The Washington Post, a mass of bone-chilling air over Canada—a polar vortex—split into three parts at the beginning of 2019, and one is making its way to the eastern U.S. Polar vortexes can push frigid air straight from the arctic tundra into more temperate regions. But just what is this weather phenomenon?

How does a polar vortex form?

Polar vortexes are basically arctic hurricanes or cyclones. NASA defines them as “a whirling and persistent large area of low pressure, found typically over both North and South poles.” A winter phenomenon, vortexes develop as the sun sets over the pole and temperatures cool, and occur in the middle and upper troposphere and the stratosphere (roughly, between six and 31 miles above the Earth’s surface).

Where will a polar vortex hit?

In the Northern Hemisphere, the vortexes move in a counterclockwise direction. Typically, they dip down over Canada, but according to NBC News, polar vortexes can move into the contiguous U.S. due to warm weather over Greenland or Alaska—which forces denser cold air south—or other weather patterns.

Polar vortexes aren't rare—in fact, arctic winds do sometimes dip down into the eastern U.S.—but sometimes the sheer size of the area affected is much greater than normal.

How cold is a polar vortex?

So cold that frozen sharks have been known to wash up on Cape Cod beaches. So cold that animal keepers at the Calgary Zoo in Alberta, Canada once decided to bring its group of king penguins indoors for warmth (the species lives on islands north of Antarctica and the birds aren't used to extreme cold.) Even parts of Alabama and other regions in the Deep South have seen single-digit temperatures and wind chills below zero.

But thankfully, this type of arctic freeze doesn't stick around forever: Temperatures will gradually warm up.

A Simple Trick for Defrosting Your Windshield in Less Than 60 Seconds

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iStock

As beautiful as a winter snowfall can be, the white stuff is certainly not without its irritations—especially if you have to get into your car and go somewhere. As if shoveling a path to the driver’s door wasn’t enough, then you’ve got a frozen windshield with which to contend. Everyone has his or her own tricks for warming up a car in record time—including appropriately-named meteorologist Ken Weathers, who works at WATE in Knoxville, Tennessee.

A while back, Weathers shared a homemade trick for defrosting your windshield in less than 60 seconds: spray the glass with a simple solution of one part water and two parts rubbing alcohol. “The reason why this works,” according to Weathers, “is [that] rubbing alcohol has a freezing point of 128 degrees below freezing.”

Watch the spray in action below.

[h/t: Travel + Leisure]

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