What's the Difference Between Weather and Climate?

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iStock

What do we talk about when we talk about climate? Contrary to what some science coverage would have you believe, it isn't the same thing as the weather. Though the terms are often (and mistakenly) used interchangeably, the difference between weather and climate boils down to time.

One of the easiest ways to describe the difference between weather and climate is to think of the weather as your mood on a certain day, while the climate is your overall personality. You can be in a foul mood today, a great mood tomorrow, and feel blah the day after that, but if you’re chipper and friendly more often than not, then you generally have an agreeable personality, despite the occasional off-day. The relationship between weather and climate works in much the same way.

The weather is what we experience on a short-term basis. Morning fog, afternoon thunderstorms, and a hurricane looming offshore are all examples of weather since they’re taking place in the present. We have lots of specialized weather models that are really good at predicting specific weather events for a period of around seven days into the future. We’re able to predict factors like exact temperatures, rainfall totals, and wind speeds with great accuracy over that short period of time.

Climate, on the other hand, is the overall trend of weather patterns over a long period of time. The temperature can vary wildly from day to day, but if your city usually experiences more warm days than cold days, you live in a warm climate. Just because you live in a warm climate doesn’t mean it’s always going to be warm, of course, but it’s likely going to be warm more often than not.

Scientists also have models that can predict climatic trends over months and even years, but they can’t give us the same specific, granular data points that weather models can suss out. A climate model can’t tell you the exact high temperature three months from today, but we do have the ability to tell you in June if temperatures in August across a certain region are likely to be warmer or cooler than average.

Scientists can use what we know about climate change in the past, the world today, and what evidence tells us the world will look like in the future to give us an idea of how climate trends will change with time. This is how scientists are fairly certain that a warming climate is causing more extreme weather conditions like hotter heat waves and more intense bouts of heavy rain.

That said, climate change isn't happening all at once, but slowly, and will continue to do so over the coming decades. There have always been unpleasant weather events, like heat waves and heavy rains, and for now, there will continue to be. But scientists say we should expect that these weather events will only get more extreme over time.

What Is a Bomb Cyclone?

Maddie Meyer/Getty Images
Maddie Meyer/Getty Images

The phrase bomb cyclone has re-entered the news this week as parts of the central U.S. face severe weather. Mountain and Midwestern states, including Colorado, Nebraska, Wyoming, and South Dakota, all fall in the path of a winter storm expected to deliver tornadoes, hail, heavy snow, flooding, and hurricane-force winds on Wednesday, March 13 into Thursday. It seems appropriate for a storm that strong to have bomb in its name, but the word actually refers to a meteorological phenomenon and not the cyclone's explosive intensity.

According to The Denver Post, the bomb in bomb cyclone stands for bombogenesis. Bombogenesis occurs when a non-tropical storm experiences at least a 24 millibar (the unit used to measure barometric pressure) drop within 24 hours. Low pressure makes for intense storms, so a bomb cyclone is a system that's built up a significant amount strength in a short length of time.

This type of storm usually depends on the ocean or another large body of water for its power. During the winter, the relatively warm air coming off the ocean and the cold air above land can collide to create a sharp drop in atmospheric pressure. Also known as a winter hurricane, this effect has produced some of the worst snowstorms to ever hit the U.S.

The fact that this latest bomb cyclone has formed nowhere near the coast makes it even more remarkable. Rather, a warm, subtropical air mass and a cold, Arctic air mass crossed paths, creating the perfect conditions for a rare bombogenesis over the Rockies and Great Plains states.

Central U.S. residents in the bomb cyclone's path have taken great precautions ahead of the storm. Over 1000 flights have been canceled for Wednesday and schools throughout Colorado have closed.

[h/t The Denver Post]

Watch a Rare ‘Ice Tsunami’ Slam Lake Erie

Clean Lakes Alliance, Flickr // CC BY 2.0
Clean Lakes Alliance, Flickr // CC BY 2.0

A combination of freezing cold temperatures and high winds is creating an unusual phenomenon along Lake Erie. As KDKA reports, ice tsunamis are toppling onto lake shores, and many locals have been asked to stay inside and even evacuate their homes.

On February 24, 2019, the National Weather Service in Buffalo, New York issued a warning about dangerous wind gusts in the Lake Erie area. The service urged citizens to seek shelter indoors and avoid traveling if possible. Winds peaked at 74 mph earlier this week, the level of a Category 1 hurricane, and tore down trees and power lines throughout the region.

People who got close to Lake Erie during the windstorm witnessed a rare event known as an ice tsunami. When wind pushed ice on the lake's surface toward the retaining wall, the sheet broke apart and dumped massive ice chunks on the shore. The video below captures the phenomenon.

In some areas, the ice piles grew so large that roadways had to be closed. Residents of Hamburg, New York's Hoover Beach area were asked to voluntarily evacuate due to the encroaching ice.

Ice tsunamis, or ice shoves, are rare, but in some cases they can be life-threatening. In 2013, waves of ice shards from a Minnesota lake destroyed people's homes.

[h/t KDKA]

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