How Your Brain Fights Sleep Even When You're Exhausted

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iStock

Maybe you’ve got an exam in the morning, or there’s just one more episode left in this season. Whatever the reason, tonight you ignore your body’s demands and stay up instead. It’s an impressive feat, if you think about it—sleep is essential—and now scientists may be closer to understanding how we do it. They published a report on their findings in the journal Neuron.

There’s a little section of your brainstem called the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). This region is responsible for making serotonin and other brain chemicals.

Lead researcher Viviana Gradinaru of Caltech says previous studies have also suggested that the dorsal raphe nucleus plays a role in helping keep us awake.

"People who have damage in this part of their brain have been shown to experience excessive daytime sleepiness,” she said in a statement, “but there was not a good understanding of the exact role of these neurons in the sleep/wake cycle and whether they react to internal or external stimuli to influence arousal."

Within the dorsal raphe nucleus lies a little-understood group of dopamine cells called the dorsal raphe nucleus neurons (DRNDA).

Color image of dorsal raphe nucleus neurons
Dorsal raphe nucleus neurons responding to light (green) and chemical (red) signals.
Viviana Gradinaru

Gradinaru and her colleagues wanted to know if voluntary wakefulness had anything to do with dopamine activity within these cells. They started by studying mouse brains, which are similar to our own in many ways.

The researchers monitored the rodents’ DRNDA action while the mice were fed, met new potential mates, or experienced sudden unpleasant sensations—all experiences for which the mice would want or need to stay awake. Throughout the experiences, the mice’s DRNDA cells kept very busy, sending bursts of dopamine to other parts of the brain.

Next, the scientists tracked DRNDA cell activity as the mice slept and woke. They found that the cells seemed to sleep when the mice did, and revved up when the mice got up.

So far, the researchers knew that the sleeping mouse/sleeping neurons and waking mouse/waking neurons pairs existed, but they couldn’t tell if the neurons caused the waking or vice versa.

To find out, they engineered DRNDA cells that could be switched on and off by light. They then bred mice with these light-sensitive cells and let them sleep. As the mice snoozed, the researchers switched on the lights and their DRNDA cells using a technique called optogenetics. Sure enough, the mice woke up.

Shutting off DRNDA cells had the opposite effect: Mice with no DRNDA activity couldn’t keep their eyes open, even when faced with danger, loud noises, or the possibility of mating.

The authors note that their experiments included only mice, and that it’s too soon to draw conclusions about what this might mean for people.

“Further work is necessary to establish causation in humans,” Gradinaru said, “and to test the potential of the DRNDA as a therapeutic target for insomnia or oversleeping, and for sleep disturbances that accompany other psychiatric disorders such as depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia."

The Psychology Behind Kids' L.O.L. Surprise! Doll Obsession

Jack Taylor, Getty Images
Jack Taylor, Getty Images

Isaac Larian, the founder and CEO of toymaker MGA Entertainment, is an insomniac. Fortunately for him, that inability to sleep forced him to get up out of bed one night—a move that ended up being worth $4 billion.

Larian’s company is the architect of L.O.L. Surprise!, a line of dolls with a clever conceit. The product, which retails for about $10 to $20, is encased in a ball-shaped plastic shell and buried under layers of packaging, forcing children to tear through a gauntlet of wrapping before they’re able to see it. The inspiration came on that highly profitable sleepless night, which Larian spent watching unboxing videos on YouTube. It resulted in the first toy made for a generation wired for delayed gratification.

The dolls first went on sale in test markets at select Target stores in late 2016. MGA shipped out 500,000 of them, all of which sold out within two months. A Cabbage Patch Kid-esque frenzy came the following year. By late 2018, L.O.L. Surprise! (the acronym stands for the fancifully redundant Little Outrageous Little) had moved 800 million units, accounted for seven of the top 10 toys sold in the U.S., and was named Toy of the Year by the Toy Association. Videos of kids and adults unboxing them garner millions of views on YouTube, which is precisely where Larian knew his marketing would be most effective.

A woman holds a L.O.L. Surprise doll and packaging in her hand
Cindy Ord, Getty Images for MGA Entertainment

The dolls themselves are nothing revolutionary. Once freed from their plastic prisons, they stare at their owner with doe-eyed expressions. Some “tinkle,” while others change color in water. They can be dressed in accessories found in the balls or paired with tiny pets (which also must be "unboxed"). Larger bundles, like last year’s $89.99 L.O.L. Bigger Surprise! capsule, feature a plethora of items, each individually wrapped. It took a writer from The New York Times 59 minutes to uncover everything inside.

This methodical excavation is what makes L.O.L. Surprise! so appealing to its pint-sized target audience. Though MGA was advised that kids wouldn’t want to buy something they couldn’t see, Larian and his executives had an instinctual understanding of what child development experts already knew: Kids like looking forward to things.

Dr. Rachel Barr, director of Georgetown University’s Early Learning Project, told The Atlantic that unboxing videos tickle the part of a child’s brain that enjoys anticipation. By age 4 or 5, they have a concept of “the future,” or events that will unfold somewhere other than the present. However, Barr said, they’re also wary of being scared by an unforeseen outcome. In an unboxing video, they know the payoff will be positive and not, say, a live tarantula.

L.O.L. Surprise! is engineered to prolong that anticipatory joy, with kids peeling away wrapping like an onion for up to 20 minutes at a time. The effect is not entirely novel—baseball card collectors have been buying and unwrapping card packs without knowing exactly what’s inside for decades—but paired with social media, MGA was able to strike oil. The dolls now have 350 licensees making everything from bed sheets to apparel. Collectors—or their parents—can buy a $199.99 doll house. So-called “boy toys” are now lurking inside the wrappers, with one, the mohawk-sporting Punk Boi, causing a mild stir for being what MGA calls “anatomically correct.” His tiny plastic genital area facilitates a peeing function.

Whether L.O.L. Surprise! bucks conventional toy trends and continues its popularity beyond a handful of holiday seasons remains to be seen. Already, MGA is pushing alternative products like Poopsie Slime Surprise, a unicorn that can be fed glitter and poops a viscous green slime. An official unboxing video has been viewed 4.2 million times and counting.

More Than Half of Wild Coffee Species Could Go Extinct

iStock.com/Alfribeiro
iStock.com/Alfribeiro

Your morning cup of coffee is under threat. A study published today in Science Advances asserts that a majority of the world’s wild coffee species are at risk of extinction. The main two types we rely on for our caffeine fix—arabica and robusta beans—are both threatened by climate change and deforestation.

The team of UK-based researchers used Red List of Threatened Species criteria from the International Union for the Conservation of Nature to classify the risks facing the world’s 124 known species of wild coffee. About 60 percent of them—or 75 different species—face possible extinction in the coming decades. This represents “one of the highest levels recorded for a plant group,” researchers write in their paper.

Partly to blame are the severe droughts associated with climate change, as well as deforestation. Other threats include the spread of fungal pathogens and coffee wilt disease in Central and South America and Africa, respectively, as well as social and economic factors for growers.

“Considering threats from human encroachment and deforestation, some [coffee species] could be extinct in 10 to 20 years, particularly with the added influence of climate change," lead author Aaron P. Davis, of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, tells CNN.

Davis’s previous research stressed that arabica, which is already listed as an endangered species, could be extinct within 60 years. Most of the coffee plants we rely on are farmed, but wild coffee is no less important. Some wild species are resistant to disease and have other useful genes that could be introduced to commercial crops. That way, the cultivated varieties might endure the effects of climate change better and stick around a little longer.

Consumers aren’t the only ones concerned, either. Coffee farming is an industry that supports about 100 million workers around the world. One way of conserving the plants is to store their seeds and genes, but Hanna Neuschwander, the director of communications for the industry group World Coffee Research, tells Mashable that these seed banks aren’t well established yet. For now, the focus is on preserving the plants themselves.

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