CLOSE
Original image
iStock

5 Math-Based Home Hacks That Will Make Your Life Easier

Original image
iStock

Even those who like math may struggle to see how it applies to their everyday lives; even those who grant that mathematics underpins marvels from cybersecurity to moon landings may doubt the discipline’s relevance to matters mundane or domestic. Many problems routinely encountered around the house, however, do in fact benefit from mathematical methods and insights. Here’s a selection.

1. FOLDING A FITTED SHEET

To those who lack mathematically-inclined minds, mathematicians have out-of-this-world intelligence—and, with it, the ability to perform impossible feats. Folding a fitted sheet, for example.

“You should be able to figure out how to fold a fitted sheet,” an acquaintance once told Mathematical Association of America ambassador James Tanton. “It’s just topology, after all.” (Topology is the mathematical study of properties that are preserved under such deformations as stretching, crumpling, and bending, but with no tearing or gluing allowed.)

Thus goaded, Tanton brought his mathematical training to bear on the problem. Applying such tried-and-true strategies as working backwards and following your nose, he produced an instructional video (above) that will have you tidily storing elasticized bedclothes in no time. First, hold up the sheet so that the short sides are perpendicular to the floor, then stick your hands into the top two corners. Next, bring your hands together; hold the corners with one hand still inside the sheet and pull the outer corner over that hand. Lay the sheet on the table and attend to the messy side, tucking the inner corner inside the outer corner. Pick up the sheet by the corners and shake it, then lay it on the table again; once you've fixed any lingering messiness, the elastic should form an upside-down U-shape, and the sheet itself should be a rectangle. Looking at the upside-down U, fold the right side over to the left side, turn 90 degrees and fold in thirds. Finally, turn it 90 degrees and fold in thirds again, and voilà! A fitted sheet folded just as neatly as a flat sheet.

2. FLIPPING A MATTRESS

Unless it boasts a must-face-up pillow-top, a mattress can be placed on a bed frame four different ways. There are two possible sleep surfaces, each of which has two possible orientations (since one or the other short side must be at the head of the bed). For minimal wear, a mattress should spend equal time in each of the four configurations. But how is an absent-minded mattress owner to accomplish this? Is there a certain mattress maneuver that could be performed quarterly to cycle through the four arrangements?

Science writer Brian Hayes explored this question in his 2005 American Scientist article “Group Theory in the Bedroom.” Group theory is a branch of mathematics that’s handy for studying symmetry, and Hayes’s article offers an accessible introduction. Hayes ends up establishing, however, that there is no “golden rule of mattress flipping,” no maneuver one can mindlessly execute to hit each arrangement in turn.

But we're not doomed to a future of unevenly worn sleep surfaces. Hayes suggests that scrupulous sleepers do the following: Number the four mattress orientations 0, 1, 2, and 3, labeling each with a number in the corner closest to the righthand side of the head of the bed. Then, cycle through the orientations 0, 1, 2, 3, 0, 1, 2, 3, 0, etc., each quarter turning the mattress to position the next number in the upper right. Problem solved.

3. DIVIDING RENT

Suppose a handful of housemates must decide who will pay how much rent. They could just divide the total evenly, or perhaps base the division on the relative square footage of the various bedrooms. Experts in a field called "fair division," though, have a better way, one that can account for differing views on what’s valuable in a room—one roommate might crave natural light, while another would readily trade sunshine for a walk-in closet or a straight shot to the loo. The math-based method, which works thanks to a 1928 result called Sperner's Lemma, is also envy-free, meaning that no one will want to swap his room/rent payment pair for someone else's.

Mathematician Francis Su applied Sperner’s Lemma to rent partitioning in a 1999 paper [PDF]; The New York Times sketched the procedure in a 2014 article; and earlier this year “Mathologer” Burkard Polster explicated the Times piece in a 15-minute video. Online tools such as this one, however, allow would-be housemates to generate everybody’s-happy rent divisions just by entering number of housemates and total rent and then each answering a series of questions of the form “If the rooms have the following prices, which room would you choose?” As you go through the calculator, it narrows down the price range each roommate finds acceptable for each room and then finds a region where all the roommates have a room at a price they consider fair.

Users must, of course, keep their expectations realistic. If two people want the same room and are willing to pay anything for it—even if that means the other rooms are free—then the calculator won’t work. But there are also sociological concerns. “It is unfortunately beyond the scope of any algorithm,” cautions the rent calculator’s disclaimer, “to keep you from envying your roommate’s job, sex life or wardrobe—or save you from buyer’s remorse.”

4. CUTTING A CAKE

Portion envy can poison a party. So a host doling out any continuous foodstuff—cake, pizza, a 6-foot submarine sandwich—would do well to heed insights gleaned from the study of fair division.

If two people are sharing a dessert or an entree, of course, the problem is simple enough: Person A divides the dish into two portions she deems equal—maybe the piece of cake with the buttercream rose is smaller than the one without, to account for A’s taste for that decoration—and then Person B claims the portion she prefers. This division, like the rent partitioning discussed above, is envy-free: Neither person would rather have the other’s share.

Two-party division has been understood since biblical times, and a method of producing an envy-free division among three parties has been known for more than 50 years (see this article for an illustrated explanation of the cutting and trimming involved). A comparable procedure for more than three parties proved elusive until 2016, however, when computer scientists Simon Mackenzie and Haris Aziz outlined “a discrete and bounded envy-free cake cutting protocol for four agents” [PDF]. The pair subsequently adapted their protocol to cover any number of agents [PDF], but there’s a catch: Dividing a cake among even a handful of would-be eaters can require more steps than there are atoms in the universe. So hosts who want to serve their guests before staleness sets in may need to risk a little envy.

5. MOVING A SOFA

Anyone with 1) an L-shaped hallway leading from door to living room and 2) a fondness for multi-person upholstered seating may face the so-called “moving sofa problem.” Posed (more abstractly) in 1966 by mathematician Leo Moser, the problem asks for the largest sofa (in terms of seating area) that can be maneuvered around a right-angled corner without lifting, squishing, or tilting.

A square sofa with the same width—1, say—as the hallway could fit by scooting into the corner and then changing direction, but would have an area of only 1. A semicircular sofa with radius 1 would arc around nicely by using the curve to swing around the inside corner and increase the area to about 1.57. Mathematicians John Hammersley and Joseph Gerver devised corner-clearing sofa shapes, both reminiscent of old telephone handsets, with areas approximately 2.2074 and 2.2195, respectively. No one is sure that a couch made to Gerver’s specifications—the outline of the seating area comprises no fewer than 18 pieces—would be the largest one capable of rounding the corner, but it’s the best bet to date.

But what if a sofa must turn twice, once to the right and once to the left, to reach its final resting place? Mathematician Dan Romik puzzled over this variation on the moving sofa problem in recent years, and discovered a two-lobed “ambidextrous sofa” shape with area about 1.64495. The Romik Ambiturner may be the largest possible, but nothing has been proven yet. Interested readers can browse (animated!) sofa shapes on Romik's website.

Original image
iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
arrow
technology
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
Original image
iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

Original image
iStock
arrow
Health
200 Health Experts Call for Ban on Two Antibacterial Chemicals
Original image
iStock

In September 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a ban on antibacterial soap and body wash. But a large collective of scientists and medical professionals says the agency should have done more to stop the spread of harmful chemicals into our bodies and environment, most notably the antimicrobials triclosan and triclocarban. They published their recommendations in the journal Environmental Health Perspectives.

The 2016 report from the FDA concluded that 19 of the most commonly used antimicrobial ingredients are no more effective than ordinary soap and water, and forbade their use in soap and body wash.

"Customers may think added antimicrobials are a way to reduce infections, but in most products there is no evidence that they do," Ted Schettler, science director of the Science and Environmental Health Network, said in a statement.

Studies have shown that these chemicals may actually do more harm than good. They don't keep us from getting sick, but they can contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, also known as superbugs. Triclosan and triclocarban can also damage our hormones and immune systems.

And while they may no longer be appearing on our bathroom sinks or shower shelves, they're still all around us. They've leached into the environment from years of use. They're also still being added to a staggering array of consumer products, as companies create "antibacterial" clothing, toys, yoga mats, paint, food storage containers, electronics, doorknobs, and countertops.

The authors of the new consensus statement say it's time for that to stop.

"We must develop better alternatives and prevent unneeded exposures to antimicrobial chemicals," Rolf Haden of the University of Arizona said in the statement. Haden researches where mass-produced chemicals wind up in the environment.

The statement notes that many manufacturers have simply replaced the banned chemicals with others. "I was happy that the FDA finally acted to remove these chemicals from soaps," said Arlene Blum, executive director of the Green Science Policy Institute. "But I was dismayed to discover at my local drugstore that most products now contain substitutes that may be worse."

Blum, Haden, Schettler, and their colleagues "urge scientists, governments, chemical and product manufacturers, purchasing organizations, retailers, and consumers" to avoid antimicrobial chemicals outside of medical settings. "Where antimicrobials are necessary," they write, we should "use safer alternatives that are not persistent and pose no risk to humans or ecosystems."

They recommend that manufacturers label any products containing antimicrobial chemicals so that consumers can avoid them, and they call for further research into the impacts of these compounds on us and our planet.

SECTIONS
BIG QUESTIONS
arrow
BIG QUESTIONS
WEATHER WATCH
BE THE CHANGE
JOB SECRETS
QUIZZES
WORLD WAR 1
SMART SHOPPING
STONES, BONES, & WRECKS
#TBT
THE PRESIDENTS
WORDS
RETROBITUARIES