8 Facts About the Biggest Tornadoes on Earth

Justin1569, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0
Justin1569, Wikimedia Commons // CC BY-SA 3.0

Tornadoes, it turns out, are about as American as apple pie. The United States is home to the majority of all the tornadoes that touch down around the world every year. Most of these twisters are small and only last a couple of minutes, but a small percentage of them can grow enormous and last for many hours, sometimes tearing a path across entire states. The largest tornadoes are in a category all their own as some of the scariest weather conditions nature can create.

1. HUGE TORNADOES REQUIRE HUGE THUNDERSTORMS.

The average tornado is only a few hundred feet wide, but some can be as narrow as a single vehicle or as wide as a mile or more across. The largest tornadoes require immense thunderstorms called supercells in order to form. A supercell is a thunderstorm with a rotating updraft. This rotating updraft helps the storm become strong and resilient. This extra boost gives supercells the ability to produce hail the size of baseballs or larger, intense winds, and enormous tornadoes.

2. THE HOOK BRINGS YOU BACK.

Tornado supercell radar image
A radar image of the supercell that produced a mile-wide F5 tornado near Oklahoma City on May 3, 1999.
Image: Gibson Ridge

Tornadoes usually form in the “hook echo” of a supercell, which is the point where winds wrapping around the storm meet with the updraft racing skyward into the storm. This hook echo is ominously visible on radar imagery and a stunning sight in person. Scientists are still studying why some supercells produce tornadoes and others don’t, but a well-defined hook echo is usually a bad sign that things could get ugly in a hurry.

3. THEY CAN STAY ON THE GROUND FOR A LONG TIME.

Large tornadoes typically have long tracks. Many of these unusually wide storms can stay on the ground for dozens of miles, sometimes traversing several states before finally dissipating. A recent tornado in Wisconsin tracked along a path more than 80 miles long. Unfortunately, when a tornado covers so much ground, it’s more likely to hit populated areas. Many of the tragic tornadoes we’ve seen in recent history caused the amount of damage they did not just because they were intense, but because they covered so much land.

4. SIZE CAN BE DECEIVING.

You shouldn’t judge a tornado solely by its size. Some small tornadoes can produce scale-topping winds, while some big tornadoes are more bark than bite and leave only minor damage—to barns or farm equipment, for example—in their wake. A tornado itself is a rotating column of wind, and it’s the wind that matters. The reason we can see tornadoes is that the low pressure within that column condenses moisture in the air, producing a funnel cloud. If a tornado moves through an area with lots of dust or loose soil, it can make the storm look much larger than it actually is.

5. SOME BIG TORNADOES ARE MADE UP OF SMALLER TORNADOES.

A huge twister can be one terrifying wedge of darkness, but it’s more common for these storms to have several smaller vortices swirling within the larger tornado itself. Storm chasers report this as a "multiple-vortex tornado.” There is some truth to the saying that a tornado can demolish one house and leave the home next door untouched. Some of the worst and strangest damage seen after big tornadoes is attributable to the small, quick “suction vortices” that circulate within a large tornado, sort of like horses going around on a carousel.

6. THE CENTER OF A TORNADO CAN BE RELATIVELY CALM.

If you’ve ever seen the famous final scene of the movie Twister, you’ve probably wondered whether it really is calm and clear in the center of a tornado. It’s not exactly the eye of a hurricane, but the middle of a tornado usually is the calmest part of one of these storms. It’s extremely hard to record (or even see) the inside of a large tornado, but depending on how big it is, the relative lull is likely fleeting and probably still contains gusty winds and flying debris.

7. IMMENSE TORNADOES CAN DO HORRIFYING THINGS.

It’s unsettling to think about what 200-plus mph winds can do when they tear through a populated area. The EF-5 tornado that struck Joplin, Missouri, in 2011 was so strong that it warped and shifted the entire structure of a hospital, requiring its demolition. It’s common to hear reports of trenches scoured into the earth and pavement ripped out of the ground from the intense winds. And there are plenty of accounts of more unusual damage, too, such as thin pieces of wood being driven through a tree trunk or a plastic drinking straw allegedly cutting through a piece of sheet metal.

8. OKLAHOMA IS GROUND ZERO FOR THESE BEHEMOTHS.

The central United States is aptly nicknamed “Tornado Alley” for its tendency to see more tornadoes than anywhere else in the world, and that total includes at least a couple of big, mile-wide tornadoes every year. Central Oklahoma holds the record for both the largest and the strongest tornadoes ever recorded. A tornado that touched down in El Reno, Oklahoma, on May 31, 2013, measured 2.6 miles wide at one point, easily breaking the record for the widest tornado ever observed. Back in 1999, a mobile Doppler weather radar recorded winds of more than 300 mph in an F5 tornado that touched down south of Oklahoma City.

Why Does Humidity Make Us Feel Hotter?

Tomwang112/iStock via Getty Images
Tomwang112/iStock via Getty Images

With temperatures spiking around the country, we thought it might be a good time to answer some questions about the heat index—and why humidity makes us feel hotter.

Why does humidity make us feel hotter?

To answer that question, we need to talk about getting sweaty.

As you probably remember from your high school biology class, one of the ways our bodies cool themselves is by sweating. The sweat then evaporates from our skin, and it carries heat away from the body as it leaves.

Humidity throws a wrench in that system of evaporative cooling, though. As relative humidity increases, the evaporation of sweat from our skin slows down. Instead, the sweat just drips off of us, which leaves us with all of the stinkiness and none of the cooling effect. Thus, when the humidity spikes, our bodies effectively lose a key tool that could normally be used to cool us down.

What's relative about relative humidity?

We all know that humidity refers to the amount of water contained in the air. However, as the air’s temperature changes, so does the amount of water the air can hold. (Air can hold more water vapor as the temperature heats up.) Relative humidity compares the actual humidity to the maximum amount of water vapor the air can hold at any given temperature.

Whose idea was the heat index?

While the notion of humidity making days feel warmer is painfully apparent to anyone who has ever been outside on a soupy day, our current system owes a big debt to Robert G. Steadman, an academic textile researcher. In a 1979 research paper called, “An Assessment of Sultriness, Parts I and II,” Steadman laid out the basic factors that would affect how hot a person felt under a given set of conditions, and meteorologists soon used his work to derive a simplified formula for calculating heat index.

The formula is long and cumbersome, but luckily it can be transformed into easy-to-read charts. Today your local meteorologist just needs to know the air temperature and the relative humidity, and the chart will tell him or her the rest.

Is the heat index calculation the same for everyone?

Not quite, but it’s close. Steadman’s original research was founded on the idea of a “typical” person who was outdoors under a very precise set of conditions. Specifically, Steadman’s everyman was 5’7” tall, weighed 147 pounds, wore long pants and a short-sleeved shirt, and was walking at just over three miles per hour into a slight breeze in the shade. Any deviations from these conditions will affect how the heat/humidity combo feels to a certain person.

What difference does being in the shade make?

Quite a big one. All of the National Weather Service’s charts for calculating the heat index make the reasonable assumption that folks will look for shade when it’s oppressively hot and muggy out. Direct sunlight can add up to 15 degrees to the calculated heat index.

How does wind affect how dangerous the heat is?

Normally, when we think of wind on a hot day, we think of a nice, cooling breeze. That’s the normal state of affairs, but when the weather is really, really hot—think high-90s hot—a dry wind actually heats us up. When it’s that hot out, wind actually draws sweat away from our bodies before it can evaporate to help cool us down. Thanks to this effect, what might have been a cool breeze acts more like a convection oven.

When should I start worrying about high heat index readings?

The National Weather Service has a handy four-tiered system to tell you how dire the heat situation is. At the most severe level, when the heat index is over 130, that's classified as "Extreme Danger" and the risk of heat stroke is highly likely with continued exposure. Things get less scary as you move down the ladder, but even on "Danger" days, when the heat index ranges from 105 to 130, you probably don’t want to be outside. According to the service, that’s when prolonged exposure and/or physical activity make sunstroke, heat cramps, and heat exhaustion likely, while heat stroke is possible.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

This article has been updated for 2019.

Is the Heat Index Real?

MarianVejcik/iStock via Getty Images
MarianVejcik/iStock via Getty Images

Complaining about the humidity is a mainstay of small talk. “It’s not the heat that gets you, it’s the humidity” is a common refrain around the South, just as “it’s a dry heat” is a go-to line in the desert Southwest. The clichés aren’t wrong on this one—a hot and humid day can have a dramatic effect on both your comfort and your health. We can measure this very real impact on your body using the heat index. 

The heat index is the temperature it feels like to your body when you factor in both the actual air temperature and the amount of moisture in the air. If the heat index is 103°F, that means that the combination of heat and humidity has a similar physical impact on your body as it would if the actual air temperature were 103°F. Even though it’s tempting to think of the heat index as an exaggerated temperature that only exists to make the heat sound worse than it really is, scientists came up with the measurements after decades of medical and meteorological research devoted to studying the impact of heat and humidity on the human body. It’s the real deal.

The dew point is an important component of the heat index. The dew point is the temperature at which the air would reach 100 percent relative humidity, or become fully saturated with moisture like on a foggy morning. Since cooler air can’t hold as much moisture as warmer air, lower dew points reflect lower moisture levels and higher dew points indicate higher moisture levels. Dew points below 60°F are comfortable, while readings reaching 70°F and even 80°F range from muggy to downright oppressive.

Measuring humidity on a hot day is important because moisture is how your body naturally cools itself off. Your sweat cools the surface of your skin through a process known as evaporative cooling. If the air is packed with moisture, it takes longer for your sweat to evaporate than it would in more normal conditions, preventing you from cooling off efficiently. The inability to lower your body temperature when it’s hot can quickly lead to medical emergencies like heat exhaustion or heat stroke, which is why the heat index is such an important measurement to pay attention to during the summer months.

The heat index is generally considered “dangerous” once the value climbs above 105°F, and your risk of falling ill increases the higher the heat index climbs.

Dry climates can have the opposite effect on your body, with the distinct lack of moisture in the air making it feel cooler to your body than it really is. Summers get oppressively hot in places like Arizona and Iraq, but the heat doesn’t affect residents as severely because the air is extremely dry. Dew points in desert regions can hover at or below 32°F even when the air temperature is well above 100°F, which is about as dry as it can get in the natural world.  

In 2016, a city in Kuwait measured the all-time highest confirmed temperature ever recorded in the eastern hemisphere, where temperatures climbed to a sweltering 129°F during the day on July 21, 2016. The dew point there at the same time was nearly 100 degrees cooler, leading to a heat index of just 110°F, much lower than the actual air temperature. That’s not necessarily a good thing. Extreme heat combined with extreme aridity can make your sweat evaporate too efficiently, quickly dehydrating you and potentially leading to medical emergencies similar to those you would experience in a much more humid region of the world. 

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

This story has been updated for 2019.

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