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Flickr: Eggplant
Flickr: Eggplant

8 Facts Revealed by Genetic Analysis of the Platypus

Flickr: Eggplant
Flickr: Eggplant

You’ve heard the joke: “After God finished making all the animals, He took the leftover parts and made the platypus.” While the platypus does not, in fact, have an actual beaver’s tail nor a duck’s bill, genetic analysis proves that the platypus is confounding well beyond its external mismatched/mish-mashed characteristics.

1. Fur

Mammals are hairy by definition, and platypuses are hairier than most. They waterproof their dense fur by preening it free of oil and schmutz, and the clean fur acts as a sort of dry suit, trapping pockets of air to keep platypuses warm underwater. (Yes, sadly, “platypuses” is the official plural for platypus, though “platypi” is used in the Latin names for some insects. Or maybe you prefer platypodes?)

2. Mammaries

Like all mammals, platypuses nurse their young on milk produced by mammary glands. Thanks to 2008’s Platypus Genome Project, we know that platypus genes that are responsible for milk production read a lot like the milk-making genes in other mammals, humans included. Scientists now think that mammals have been producing milk for over 166 million years, which would mean milk production has been an instrumental evolutionary rudder in the development of modern mammals. Haha: udder rudder. Except...

The platypus doesn’t have teats. Instead, it oozes milk from mammary “patches,” which are kind of like areolae without the nipples. Other animals that nurse via mammary patches? Oh, just the four species of echidna (spiny anteaters), which, together with the platypus, make up the entire order Monotremata, also known as “egg-laying mammals.”

3. Eggs

Platypuses lay leathery, reptile-like eggs, but their genes tell us that their egg-making genes are more mammalian—in some ways. Other egg-related gene characteristics are shared with birds, amphibians and fish, while still others are only shared with birds and fish, and those genetic traits only partially shared.

Much like marsupials (kangaroos, possums, and other pocketed animals), platypus young are born (i.e. hatch from their leathery eggs) in a semi-fetal state, and continue developing throughout the nursing process. In fact, echidnas keep their young in a pouch after hatching; platypuses instead dig deep, complex burrows in which to safely build their nests. How?

4. Feet

...With their clawed feet, which are also webbed for swimming. Who says working moms can’t have it all?

5. Eyes

The platypus’ eyes alone have been the subject of much publication, possessing (again) a mosaic of characteristics found in disparate animal orders. For instance, they have a rod/cone balance that most closely resembles that of other mammals, but also have a “double cone” thing going on, a feature not found in eutherian mammals (mammals that give birth to fully developed young) or marsupials. Meanwhile, their eyeballs are enclosed by a type of cartilage more like that seen in birds, reptiles, amphibians, sharks, rays, and lungfish.

6. Poison!

Male platypuses have pretty mean built-in weapons: spurs on their hind legs that are loaded with a venom potent enough to kill a dog and debilitate a human for days. While there are a few other types of venomous mammal out there, this type of venomous sting could be considered a more reptilian-like trait; that is, the venom itself is made up of organic material similar to the venom in reptiles. However, according to the platypus genome, that organic material gets made via variations in different genes than in reptiles. Reptilian result, uniquely platypusal cause.

7. Sexy bits

The sex of the platypus is determined by a set of ten chromosomes, which, according to platypus geneticist Jennifer Graves, “are absolutely, completely different from all other mammals. We had not expected that.” Each platypus sperm contains either all X or all Y chromosomes. And the platypus X chromosome looks more like the Z sex chromosome that shows up in birds.

8. Electro-sensory system

In case you weren’t yet convinced that the platypus is “special”: It hunts via a system called electroreception, which is exactly as rad as it sounds. The skin in its bill is highly sensitive, and its combination of touch receptors and electroreceptors (comparable to those found in electric fish) pick up on movements and low-frequency electrical signals in its prey. That’s why, even hunting underwater, at night, the platypus can still bring home the bacon. It’s like, guys—leave some cool stuff for the rest of us, maybe.

Primary image via Flickr user The Eggplant. 

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13 Fascinating Facts About Nina Simone
Hulton Archive/Getty Images
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Nina Simone, who would’ve celebrated her 85th birthday today, was known for using her musical platform to speak out. “I think women play a major part in opening the doors for better understanding around the world,” the “Strange Fruit” songstress once said. Though she chose to keep her personal life shrouded in secrecy, these facts grant VIP access into a life well-lived and the music that still lives on.

1. NINA SIMONE WAS HER STAGE NAME.

The singer was born as Eunice Waymon on February 21, 1933. But by age 21, the North Carolina native was going by a different name at her nightly Atlantic City gig: Nina Simone. She hoped that adopting a different name would keep her mother from finding out about her performances. “Nina” was her boyfriend’s nickname for her at the time. “Simone” was inspired by Simone Signoret, an actress that the singer admired.

2. SHE HAD HUMBLE BEGINNINGS.


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There's a reason that much of the singer's music had gospel-like sounds. Simone—the daughter of a Methodist minister and a handyman—was raised in the church and started playing the piano by ear at age 3. She got her start in her hometown of Tryon, North Carolina, where she played gospel hymns and classical music at Old St. Luke’s CME, the church where her mother ministered. After Simone died on April 21, 2003, she was memorialized at the same sanctuary.

3. SHE WAS BOOK SMART...

Simone, who graduated valedictorian of her high school class, studied at the prestigious Julliard School of Music for a brief period of time before applying to Philadelphia’s Curtis Institute of Music. Unfortunately, Simone was denied admission. For years, she maintained that her race was the reason behind the rejection. But a Curtis faculty member, Vladimir Sokoloff, has gone on record to say that her skin color wasn’t a factor. “It had nothing to do with her…background,” he said in 1992. But Simone ended up getting the last laugh: Two days before her death, the school awarded her an honorary degree.

4. ... WITH DEGREES TO PROVE IT.

Simone—who preferred to be called “doctor Nina Simone”—was also awarded two other honorary degrees, from the University of Massachusetts Amherst and Malcolm X College.

5. HER CAREER WAS ROOTED IN ACTIVISM.

A photo of Nina Simone circa 1969

Gerrit de Bruin

At the age of 12, Simone refused to play at a church revival because her parents had to sit at the back of the hall. From then on, Simone used her art to take a stand. Many of her songs in the '60s, including “Mississippi Goddamn,” “Why (The King of Love Is Dead),” and “Young, Gifted and Black,” addressed the rampant racial injustices of that era.

Unfortunately, her activism wasn't always welcome. Her popularity diminished; venues didn’t invite her to perform, and radio stations didn’t play her songs. But she pressed on—even after the Civil Rights Movement. In 1997, Simone told Interview Magazine that she addressed her songs to the third world. In her own words: “I’m a real rebel with a cause.”

6. ONE OF HER MOST FAMOUS SONGS WAS BANNED.

Mississippi Goddam,” her 1964 anthem, only took her 20 minutes to an hour to write, according to legend—but it made an impact that still stands the test of time. When she wrote it, Simone had been fed up with the country’s racial unrest. Medger Evers, a Mississippi-born civil rights activist, was assassinated in his home state in 1963. That same year, the Ku Klux Klan bombed a Birmingham Baptist church and as a result, four young black girls were killed. Simone took to her notebook and piano to express her sentiments.

“Alabama's gotten me so upset/Tennessee made me lose my rest/And everybody knows about Mississippi Goddam,” she sang.

Some say that the song was banned in Southern radio stations because “goddam” was in the title. But others argue that the subject matter is what caused the stations to return the records cracked in half.

7. SHE NEVER HAD A NUMBER ONE HIT.

Nina Simone released over 40 albums during her decades-spanning career including studio albums, live versions, and compilations, and scored 15 Grammy nominations. But her highest-charting (and her first) hit, “I Loves You, Porgy,” peaked at #2 on the U.S. R&B charts in 1959. Still, her music would go on to influence legendary singers like Roberta Flack and Aretha Franklin.

8. SHE USED HER STYLE TO MAKE A STATEMENT.

Head wraps, bold jewelry, and floor-skimming sheaths were all part of Simone’s stylish rotation. In 1967, she wore the same black crochet fishnet jumpsuit with flesh-colored lining for the entire year. Not only did it give off the illusion of her being naked, but “I wanted people to remember me looking a certain way,” she said. “It made it easier for me.”

9. SHE HAD MANY HOMES.

New York City, Liberia, Barbados, England, Belgium, France, Switzerland, and the Netherlands were all places that Simone called home. She died at her home in Southern France, and her ashes were scattered in several African countries.

10. SHE HAD A FAMOUS INNER CIRCLE.

During the late '60s, Simone and her second husband Andrew Stroud lived next to Malcolm X and his family in Mount Vernon, New York. He wasn't her only famous pal. Simone was very close with playwright Lorraine Hansberry. After Hansberry’s death, Simone penned “To Be Young, Gifted and Black” in her honor, a tribute to Hansberry's play of the same title. Simone even struck up a brief friendship with David Bowie in the mid-1970s, who called her every night for a month to offer his advice and support.

11. YOU CAN STILL VISIT SIMONE IN HER HOMETOWN.

Photo of Nina Simone
Amazing Nina Documentary Film, LLC, CC BY-SA 4.0, Wikimedia Commons

In 2010, an 8-foot sculpture of Eunice Waymon was erected in her hometown of Tryon, North Carolina. Her likeness stands tall in Nina Simone Plaza, where she’s seated and playing an eternal song on a keyboard that floats in midair. Her daughter, Lisa Simone Kelly, gave sculptor Zenos Frudakis some of Simone’s ashes to weld into the sculpture’s bronze heart. "It's not something very often done, but I thought it was part of the idea of bringing her home," Frudakis said.

12. YOU'VE PROBABLY HEARD HER MUSIC IN RECENT HITS.

Rihanna sang a few verses of Simone’s “Do What You Gotta Do” on Kanye West’s The Life of Pablo. He’s clearly a superfan: “Blood on the Leaves” and his duet with Jay Z, “New Day,” feature Simone samples as well, along with Lil’ Wayne’s “Dontgetit,” Common’s “Misunderstood” and a host of other tracks.

13. HER MUSIC IS STILL BEING PERFORMED.

Nina Revisited… A Tribute to Nina Simone was released along with the Netflix documentary in 2015. On the album, Lauryn Hill, Jazmine Sullivan, Usher, Alice Smith, and more paid tribute to the legend by performing covers of 16 of her most famous tracks.

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Animals
Watch the First-Ever Footage of a Baby Dumbo Octopus
NOAA, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain
NOAA, Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain

Dumbo octopuses are named for the elephant-ear-like fins they use to navigate the deep sea, but until recently, when and how they developed those floppy appendages were a mystery. Now, for the first time, researchers have caught a newborn Dumbo octopus on tape. As reported in the journal Current Biology, they discovered that the creatures are equipped with the fins from the moment they hatch.

Study co-author Tim Shank, a researcher at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in Massachusetts, spotted the octopus in 2005. During a research expedition in the North Atlantic, one of the remotely operated vehicles he was working with collected several coral branches with something strange attached to them. It looked like a bunch of sandy-colored golf balls at first, but then he realized it was an egg sac.

He and his fellow researchers eventually classified the hatchling that emerged as a member of the genus Grimpoteuthis. In other words, it was a Dumbo octopus, though they couldn't determine the exact species. But you wouldn't need a biology degree to spot its resemblance to Disney's famous elephant, as you can see in the video below.

The octopus hatched with a set of functional fins that allowed it to swim around and hunt right away, and an MRI scan revealed fully-developed internal organs and a complex nervous system. As the researchers wrote in their study, Dumbo octopuses enter the world as "competent juveniles" ready to jump straight into adult life.

Grimpoteuthis spends its life in the deep ocean, which makes it difficult to study. Scientists hope the newly-reported findings will make it easier to identify Grimpoteuthis eggs and hatchlings for future research.

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