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6 Times Literary Works Were Stolen

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Last month, a short, untitled prequel to the Harry Potter series was stolen in a home burglary in Birmingham, England. Handwritten on two sides of a postcard, the 800-word manuscript told a story involving a young James Potter (Harry’s father) and his friend, Sirius Black, both of whom have a brush with Muggle policemen, and was auctioned to support a British charity.

Police are investigating the theft, and author J.K. Rowling is urging fans not to buy the work. That said, Rowling is in good (albeit unlucky) company, as plenty of other valuable, important, or rare manuscripts have been swiped from authors or the individuals or institutions tasked with taking care of them. Here's a sampling of them.

1. HEMINGWAY'S SUITCASE OF EARLY WRITING PROJECTS WAS STOLEN IN A PARISIAN TRAIN STATION.

In 1922, Ernest Hemingway was a young newspaper correspondent with big dreams, a fledgling marriage, and a prolific body of unpublished fiction. The last two were jeopardized by an ill-fated trip to Lausanne, Switzerland: Hemingway was there to cover an international conference, and his wife, Hadley, planned to join him from Paris to go skiing. The doting spouse packed Hemingway’s manuscripts into a suitcase—including an attempt at a novel he’d written about his experiences as a World War I ambulance driver—and set off for the slopes, thinking her husband could write while on holiday and share his work with an editor/journalist he had met. But on the way, the suitcase was stolen, and most of Hemingway’s hard work was lost to him forever.

Hemingway describes the moment he learned the bad news in his 1964 memoir, A Moveable Feast:

"I had never seen anyone hurt by a thing other than death or unbearable suffering except Hadley when she told me about the things being gone. She had cried and cried and could not tell me. I told her that no matter what the dreadful thing was that had happened nothing could be that bad, and whatever it was, it was all right and not to worry. We could work it out. Then, finally, she told me. I was sure she could not have brought the carbons too and I hired someone to cover for me on my newspaper job. I was making good money then at journalism, and took the train for Paris. It was true alright and I remember what I did in the night after I let myself into the flat and found it was true."

Hemingway never does reveal "what he did" (chances are it involved drinking), but "he was very brave about it," Hadley told a friend in the 1970s. That said, the ex-wife added, she "could tell he was heartbroken."

2. MALCOLM LOWRY'S FIRST NOVEL WAS STOLEN FROM THE CAR OF A PUBLISHING FIRM DIRECTOR.

English writer Malcolm Lowry achieved literary fame with Under the Volcano, his 1947 novel about the final moments of an alcoholic ex-British ambassador in Mexico. Before that, he had only published a single book—a largely overlooked work called Ultramarine.

Released in 1933, Ultramarine was based on Lowry’s experiences working on a Far East steamer ship as a teen, before studying at Cambridge University. The young writer completed his manuscript during his final term of school, and a publisher accepted it—but the novel’s fate was thrust into peril when a publishing firm director had his briefcase stolen from his car. Inside the case was the only typescript version of Ultramarine.

It’s unclear how the novel ultimately ended up getting published, especially since Lowry claimed to have destroyed or thrown out all of his previous drafts. According to the author, a friend had rescued Lowry's final draft from the trash (accounts differ whether it was the manuscript or a carbon copy). Meanwhile, another chum claims that a version of Ultramarine had been written and left at his house, and that Lowry knew it was still there.

3. FRANZ KAFKA'S NOTEBOOKS AND LETTERS WERE STOLEN BY NAZIS.

After Franz Kafka died of tuberculosis in 1924, his lover Dora Diamant kept up to 20 of the author’s notebooks—which contained jotted-down thoughts, ideas, and sketches—and 35 of his letters. But when the Nazis came into power, the Gestapo raided Diamant’s house in Berlin. Looking for communist propaganda, they confiscated all of her papers, including Kafka’s works.

One of Kafka’s friends, Max Brod, along with a man named Klaus Wagenbach, tried to locate the writings—but since the Gestapo had confiscated so many documents, their search efforts weren’t successful. In later years, political turmoil in Germany prevented the two from pursuing the goods.

In the late '90s, Diamant's biographer, Kathi Diamant, and San Diego State University launched the Kafka Project, a search for these missing documents. They've spent two decades scouring Nazi archives in Prague and Berlin, consulting with scholars and national archivists, and investigating a claim that Kafka’s stolen writings were last spotted on a train to the east so they wouldn’t be destroyed by air raids.

Currently, Diamant and German scholar Dr. Hans Koch are trying to gain access to a secret Berlin archive to catalogue its contents—and hopefully, to find the long-lost works they’ve been searching for all these years.

4. A TWILIGHT FAN STOLE A RETELLING OF THE BOOK BY AUTHOR STEPHENIE MEYER.

"Twilight" author Stephenie Meyer at a movie premiere
Angela Weiss/Getty Images

When word got out in 2008 that Twilight author Stephenie Meyer was writing Midnight Sun, a version of the series’ first book told from vampire Edward Cullen’s prospective, an eager reader got hold of the unfinished draft and published it online without Meyer’s consent or knowledge.

Meyer was so upset that she ceased work on Midnight Sun, telling fans that the unauthorized leak had ruined her creative process. Originally, Meyer had shared a teaser chapter of the work on her personal website—but after putting brakes on the project, she posted the entire uncompleted work for fans to read.

“I rather my fans not read this version…. It was only an incomplete draft….” Meyer wrote. “But to end the confusion, I’ve decided to make the draft available…. I hope this fragment gives you further insight into Edward’s head and adds a new dimension to the Twilight story. That’s what inspired me to write it in the first place."

Recently, Meyer had reportedly started working on Midnight Sun again—but since the premise was too similar to the forthcoming Grey, a retelling of 50 Shades of Grey from character Christian Grey's perspective, she decided to once again put the kibosh on the effort.

5. WALT WHITMAN'S NOTEBOOKS WERE STOLEN FROM THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS.

American poet and author Walt Whitman
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

According to The New York Times, in 1918, Walt Whitman’s friend and literary executor Thomas B. Harned gave the Library of Congress a collection of 24 notebooks that had once belonged to the author. They contained notes from when the 19th century poet worked as a Civil War army nurse, an early version of his seminal poem “Song of Myself,” and a draft of the wartime poem "Cavalry Crossing a Ford.”

In 1942, many valuable library items, including Whitman’s notebooks, were sent away to Ohio for safekeeping as World War II raged on. Several years later, a package that supposedly contained 10 of the writer’s composition tablets arrived back in Washington, D.C.—but the notebooks themselves were missing. (The box’s seal was unbroken, suggesting that the works were stolen before the box was shipped.)

The notebooks were presumed lost for decades, until an anonymous man discovered four of the pocket-sized books among his father’s papers after his death. He tried to sell them at Sotheby’s auction house in New York, as all he knew about the works was that his late father had received them as a gift around 30 years prior. But since the works were stolen property, they couldn’t be resold.

Sotheby’s returned the rediscovered notebooks to the Library of Congress, much to the delight of historians, conservationists, and scholars. (The other six remain missing.) "This is definitely the most important literary material we could have hoped to recover of anything known in American literature," David Wigdor, who was then assistant chief of the Library of Congress’s manuscript division, told The Washington Post. "This material will actually be used by scholars. Their utility is quite transcendent."

6. ONE OF SHAKESPEARE'S FIRST FOLIOS WAS STOLEN FROM AN ENGLISH LIBRARY.

A sketch of author William Shakespeare writing while seated in a chair
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Before William Shakespeare’s death in 1616, only half of his theatrical works had already been printed, in small books called quartos; no large-scale anthology of the Bard’s plays existed yet. Two of Shakespeare’s friends, John Heminge and Henry Condell, who belonged to his acting company The King’s Men, decided to change this: They took 36 of his plays and gave them to publishers Edward Blount and Isaac Jaggard.

In 1623, the first collected edition of Shakespeare’s plays was finally completed. Its given name is Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies, but most scholars simply refer to it as the “First Folio,” in reference to the large-sized paper the works were printed on. (In those days, this kind of paper was usually reserved for royal proclamations and for important works, like theology and history.) Since multiple versions existed of some plays, Shakespeare’s friends claimed to have used “original” copies for the First Folio, although nobody knows for sure if this is true.

Experts believe that only 750 or fewer copies of the First Folio were published, and today, only 233 known copies survive worldwide. These books are worth millions of dollars each—which is likely the reason why in 1998, someone stole a First Folio from the Durham Cathedral library in England.

In 2008, a decade after the book’s theft, a man named Raymond Scott brought it to the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, D.C., and requested an evaluation and appraisal. Scott claimed he’d been given the work as a gift in Cuba, from a friend whose mother had safeguarded the “old English Book” in a chest.

Right off the bat, Folger staff knew that the work was a First Folio, and Stephen C. Massey, a famous rare-book appraiser, confirmed it was the one stolen from Durham. The Folger contacted authorities, and police eventually arrested Scott. Nobody could prove if he was, in fact, the person who originally stole the Durham First Folio, but in 2010, Scott was convicted of handling stolen goods and smuggling the valuable work out of England. He died in prison in 2012.

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7 Lost and Rediscovered Literary Works by Famous Authors
F. Scott Fitzgerald
F. Scott Fitzgerald
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A number of literary works by famous authors that were once thought lost have recently been rediscovered. Some were found in private collections, others within vast archives, and one was even uncovered in an attic. A few of these works have delighted readers and scholars alike, while others may have gone unpublished for a reason—yet all offer fresh insight into the development of the writers who wrote them.

1. “TEMPERATURE” // F. SCOTT FITZGERALD

In July 2015 Andrew Gulli, managing editor of The Strand magazine, was searching through the rare book archive at Princeton University when he uncovered a previously unpublished short story by Princeton alum F. Scott Fitzgerald. Gulli makes something of a habit of searching for lost and unpublished works by famous authors, and in the past has uncovered a story by John Steinbeck, which was also published for the first time in The Strand. Fitzgerald's 8000-word short story, entitled “Temperature” and written in 1939, features a hard-drinking writer with a heart problem. In a sad echo of real life, just a year after he wrote it Fitzgerald himself died of a heart attack.

2. WHAT PET SHALL I GET? // DR. SEUSS

Ted Geisel (Dr. Seuss) seated at a desk covered with his books
Library of Congress, Wikimedia // Public Domain

In 2013, the widow of Ted Geisel (better known as Dr. Seuss) rediscovered a pile of manuscripts and sketches that she had set aside shortly after her husband's death in 1991. The papers contained the words and illustrations for What Pet Shall I Get?, which was published by Random House in July 2015. It is thought the book was likely written between 1958 and 1962, since it features the same brother-and-sister characters found in Seuss’s 1960 bestseller One Fish Two Fish Red Fish Blue Fish.

3. “SHERLOCK HOLMES: DISCOVERING THE BORDER BURGHS AND, BY DEDUCTION, THE BRIG BAZAAR” // ARTHUR CONAN DOYLE

Portrait of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle sitting at a table in his garden, Bignell Wood, New Forest, 1927
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A Sherlock Holmes short story supposedly written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle was uncovered in the attic of historian Walter Elliot in 2015. The strange little story was written by Conan Doyle to be included in a collection of stories entitled The Book o' the Brig, which aimed to raise funds to rebuild a bridge across Ettrick Water, near Selkirk in Scotland, which had been destroyed during floods in 1902.

No sooner had the story been rediscovered, however, than some were expressing doubts about whether it had been written by Conan Doyle himself, especially since the flowery language doesn't seem in keeping with the renowned author's pared-down style. The full text of the story can be read (and puzzled over) here.

4. "THE FIELD OF HONOR" // EDITH WHARTON

Photo of author Edith Wharton, wearing hat with a feather, coat with fur trim, and a fur muff
Beinecke Rare Books and Manuscript Library, Wikimedia // Public Domain

Alice Kelly, a researcher from Oxford University, was studying Edith Wharton’s papers in the Beinecke Library at Yale University in November 2015 when she discovered a previously unpublished short story. The unfinished nine-page story was stuck to the back of another manuscript, and is entitled "The Field of Honor." It centers on the First World War and is critical of the women who only superficially helped with the war effort, perhaps explaining why it was not published at such a sensitive time.

5. "POETICAL ESSAY ON THE EXISTING STATE OF THINGS" // PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY

Crayon drawing of poet Percy Shelley circa 1820
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When Percy Bysshe Shelley was in his first year of university at Oxford in 1810/11, he wrote and published a poem critical of the Napoleonic wars under the pseudonym “a gentlemen of the University of Oxford.” The 172-line poem was printed in a 20-page pamphlet entitled “Poetical Essay on the Existing State of Things” and was not attributed to Shelley until 50 years after his death. All copies were thought lost until 2006, when one was found amidst a mysterious private collection and offered for auction. Only scholars had access to the poem until 2015, when it was purchased by the Bodleian Library in Oxford to add to their world-famous collection of Shelley works and papers. The poem became the library’s 12 millionth book to be acquired and is now available online for all to read.

6. EARLY STORIES // TRUMAN CAPOTE

A black-and-white photo of a smiling Truman Capote
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A Swiss publisher poring over Truman Capote’s papers at the New York Public Library several years ago rediscovered a variety of short stories and poems the author had written before the age of 20. While four of the stories had been published in Capote’s school literary magazine, The Green Witch, the majority of the pile was brand-new to the reading public. In October 2015, Penguin books released the stories as The Early Stories of Truman Capote.

7. THE TURNIP PRINCESS

While looking through the archives of the city of Regensberg, Germany, researcher Erika Eichenseer uncovered 30 boxes containing more than 500 German fairy tales, which had lain unnoticed for 150 years. The stories had been collected by historian Franz Xaver von Schönwerth, who traveled around the Bavarian region of Oberpfalz recording folktales, myths, and legends in order to preserve them. He published the results of his research in three volumes between 1857 and 1859, but his matter-of-fact accounts of the stories were somewhat overshadowed by the more artful stories of his contemporaries the Brothers Grimm, and his book fell into obscurity. The Turnip Princess and Other Newly Discovered Fairy Tales contains 72 of the lost tales and was published by Penguin in February 2015.

A previous version of this story ran in 2015.

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10 Fun Facts About Paddington Bear
HarperCollins
HarperCollins

Don't tell Winnie the Pooh, but he's not the only big shot on the children's book bear market. Paddington Bear has been charming children and adults alike since 1958. As he readies for his second big-screen outing in Paddington 2, which hits theaters on Friday, here's how Paddington came to be.

1. IT STARTED WITH A LONELY TEDDY BEAR.

Have you ever seen a neglected toy abandoned on a store shelf or tossed aside, unwanted, and felt oddly sorry for it? That's exactly how Paddington Bear came about. Author Michael Bond was roaming Selfridges department store on Christmas Eve in 1956 looking for a gift for his wife when he came across a lonely teddy bear all alone on a shelf.

“I felt sorry for it," Bond said. Though Bond purchased him, the idea of the abandoned bear stuck with the would-be author. He began writing stories about it, mostly for his own amusement, then realized he might have something children would be interested in.

2. PADDINGTON ISN'T HIS REAL NAME.

Paddington isn't this beloved bear's real name. He has a Peruvian name, but tells his adoptive family that no one would be able to understand it (we find out much later that it's "Pastuso"). They decide to call him Paddington, which is the name of the railway station where he was discovered. The bear Bond took home from the department store on Christmas Eve received the same name because Bond and his wife lived near Paddington Station at the time.

3. HE WASN'T ALWAYS FROM PERU.

Originally, Paddington wasn't going to be from Darkest Peru. First drafts had Paddington calling "darkest Africa" home. But after Bond got an agent, the agent informed him no bears exist in Africa. Peru, however, does have spectacled bears.

4. IT TOOK SEVEN YEARS FOR MICHAEL BOND TO QUIT HIS DAY JOB.

British author Michael Bond, who wrote the Paddington Bear series of books
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It took about seven years from the time the first book was published in 1958, but eventually the sales of Paddington books allowed Bond to retire from his job as a cameraman for the BBC.

5. BOND WAS SURPRISED BY PADDINGTON'S SUCCESS.

Paddington books have sold more than 35 million copies and have been translated into over 40 languages, which surprised Bond. "I am constantly surprised by all the translations because I thought that Paddington was essentially an English character," he once said. "Obviously Paddington-type situations happen all over the world."

6. THERE'S A STATUE OF PADDINGTON AT PADDINGTON STATION.

There's a little statue of Paddington Bear at Paddington Station. He's just the size you would expect him to be. When you're done snapping a photo with him, you can march yourself over to the Paddington shop at the station, which sells nothing but Paddington Bear gear.

7. PADDINGTON FACED IMMIGRATION ISSUES IN 2008.

Poor Paddington faced a rather grown up situation in 2008. When P.B. goes to report his stolen shopping cart, the police discover that he's in London illegally from Darkest Peru and immigration issues ensue. "There is this side of Paddington the Browns don't really understand at all," Bond said. "What it's like to be a refugee, not to be in your own country."

8. HE ONCE TRADED IN MARMALADE FOR MARMITE.

Of course Paddington adores marmalade, and no reason is ever given for that ("Bears love marmalade" is all we get). But in 2007, he decided to give Marmite a try instead. Although he had been enjoying marmalade for the 49 years prior (always keeping an emergency sandwich under his hat, just in case), it was apparently the right time to try something different, and he finds a Marmite and cheese sandwich to be "rather good." But don't expect Paddington's favorite fare to be replaced anytime soon—it was a one-time advertising promotion.

9. IT TOOK 15 YEARS FOR PADDINGTON'S WELLIES TO BECOME FAMOUS.

Paddington's famous Wellies weren't that famous until the plush version of him came out in 1972. The owner of a small business called Gabrielle Designs decided to make a Paddington stuffed animal for her children because there wasn't one on the market yet. Although the bear had received a pair of Wellington boots in 1964's Paddington Marches On, he wasn't necessarily known for them. The Wellies were placed on the stuffed bear's feet just to help him stand upright, and he became known for his colorful boots when the toy became a commercial success.

10. THE REST OF HIS SIGNATURE OUTFIT HAS ITS OWN HISTORY, TOO.

Speaking of Paddington's clothes, here's where the rest of the famous outfit came from: The blue duffle coat was purchased for him by the Browns soon after he came to live with them. The old hat was handed down to him from his uncle, who is still in Darkest Peru with Aunt Lucy. Aunt Lucy is the one who placed the "Please Look After This Bear" tag around his neck.

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