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Central Press/Getty Images

6 Times Literary Works Were Stolen

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Central Press/Getty Images

Last month, a short, untitled prequel to the Harry Potter series was stolen in a home burglary in Birmingham, England. Handwritten on two sides of a postcard, the 800-word manuscript told a story involving a young James Potter (Harry’s father) and his friend, Sirius Black, both of whom have a brush with Muggle policemen, and was auctioned to support a British charity.

Police are investigating the theft, and author J.K. Rowling is urging fans not to buy the work. That said, Rowling is in good (albeit unlucky) company, as plenty of other valuable, important, or rare manuscripts have been swiped from authors or the individuals or institutions tasked with taking care of them. Here's a sampling of them.

1. HEMINGWAY'S SUITCASE OF EARLY WRITING PROJECTS WAS STOLEN IN A PARISIAN TRAIN STATION.

In 1922, Ernest Hemingway was a young newspaper correspondent with big dreams, a fledgling marriage, and a prolific body of unpublished fiction. The last two were jeopardized by an ill-fated trip to Lausanne, Switzerland: Hemingway was there to cover an international conference, and his wife, Hadley, planned to join him from Paris to go skiing. The doting spouse packed Hemingway’s manuscripts into a suitcase—including an attempt at a novel he’d written about his experiences as a World War I ambulance driver—and set off for the slopes, thinking her husband could write while on holiday and share his work with an editor/journalist he had met. But on the way, the suitcase was stolen, and most of Hemingway’s hard work was lost to him forever.

Hemingway describes the moment he learned the bad news in his 1964 memoir, A Moveable Feast:

"I had never seen anyone hurt by a thing other than death or unbearable suffering except Hadley when she told me about the things being gone. She had cried and cried and could not tell me. I told her that no matter what the dreadful thing was that had happened nothing could be that bad, and whatever it was, it was all right and not to worry. We could work it out. Then, finally, she told me. I was sure she could not have brought the carbons too and I hired someone to cover for me on my newspaper job. I was making good money then at journalism, and took the train for Paris. It was true alright and I remember what I did in the night after I let myself into the flat and found it was true."

Hemingway never does reveal "what he did" (chances are it involved drinking), but "he was very brave about it," Hadley told a friend in the 1970s. That said, the ex-wife added, she "could tell he was heartbroken."

2. MALCOLM LOWRY'S FIRST NOVEL WAS STOLEN FROM THE CAR OF A PUBLISHING FIRM DIRECTOR.

English writer Malcolm Lowry achieved literary fame with Under the Volcano, his 1947 novel about the final moments of an alcoholic ex-British ambassador in Mexico. Before that, he had only published a single book—a largely overlooked work called Ultramarine.

Released in 1933, Ultramarine was based on Lowry’s experiences working on a Far East steamer ship as a teen, before studying at Cambridge University. The young writer completed his manuscript during his final term of school, and a publisher accepted it—but the novel’s fate was thrust into peril when a publishing firm director had his briefcase stolen from his car. Inside the case was the only typescript version of Ultramarine.

It’s unclear how the novel ultimately ended up getting published, especially since Lowry claimed to have destroyed or thrown out all of his previous drafts. According to the author, a friend had rescued Lowry's final draft from the trash (accounts differ whether it was the manuscript or a carbon copy). Meanwhile, another chum claims that a version of Ultramarine had been written and left at his house, and that Lowry knew it was still there.

3. FRANZ KAFKA'S NOTEBOOKS AND LETTERS WERE STOLEN BY NAZIS.

After Franz Kafka died of tuberculosis in 1924, his lover Dora Diamant kept up to 20 of the author’s notebooks—which contained jotted-down thoughts, ideas, and sketches—and 35 of his letters. But when the Nazis came into power, the Gestapo raided Diamant’s house in Berlin. Looking for communist propaganda, they confiscated all of her papers, including Kafka’s works.

One of Kafka’s friends, Max Brod, along with a man named Klaus Wagenbach, tried to locate the writings—but since the Gestapo had confiscated so many documents, their search efforts weren’t successful. In later years, political turmoil in Germany prevented the two from pursuing the goods.

In the late '90s, Diamant's biographer, Kathi Diamant, and San Diego State University launched the Kafka Project, a search for these missing documents. They've spent two decades scouring Nazi archives in Prague and Berlin, consulting with scholars and national archivists, and investigating a claim that Kafka’s stolen writings were last spotted on a train to the east so they wouldn’t be destroyed by air raids.

Currently, Diamant and German scholar Dr. Hans Koch are trying to gain access to a secret Berlin archive to catalogue its contents—and hopefully, to find the long-lost works they’ve been searching for all these years.

4. A TWILIGHT FAN STOLE A RETELLING OF THE BOOK BY AUTHOR STEPHENIE MEYER.

"Twilight" author Stephenie Meyer at a movie premiere
Angela Weiss/Getty Images

When word got out in 2008 that Twilight author Stephenie Meyer was writing Midnight Sun, a version of the series’ first book told from vampire Edward Cullen’s prospective, an eager reader got hold of the unfinished draft and published it online without Meyer’s consent or knowledge.

Meyer was so upset that she ceased work on Midnight Sun, telling fans that the unauthorized leak had ruined her creative process. Originally, Meyer had shared a teaser chapter of the work on her personal website—but after putting brakes on the project, she posted the entire uncompleted work for fans to read.

“I rather my fans not read this version…. It was only an incomplete draft….” Meyer wrote. “But to end the confusion, I’ve decided to make the draft available…. I hope this fragment gives you further insight into Edward’s head and adds a new dimension to the Twilight story. That’s what inspired me to write it in the first place."

Recently, Meyer had reportedly started working on Midnight Sun again—but since the premise was too similar to the forthcoming Grey, a retelling of 50 Shades of Grey from character Christian Grey's perspective, she decided to once again put the kibosh on the effort.

5. WALT WHITMAN'S NOTEBOOKS WERE STOLEN FROM THE LIBRARY OF CONGRESS.

American poet and author Walt Whitman
Hulton Archive/Getty Images

According to The New York Times, in 1918, Walt Whitman’s friend and literary executor Thomas B. Harned gave the Library of Congress a collection of 24 notebooks that had once belonged to the author. They contained notes from when the 19th century poet worked as a Civil War army nurse, an early version of his seminal poem “Song of Myself,” and a draft of the wartime poem "Cavalry Crossing a Ford.”

In 1942, many valuable library items, including Whitman’s notebooks, were sent away to Ohio for safekeeping as World War II raged on. Several years later, a package that supposedly contained 10 of the writer’s composition tablets arrived back in Washington, D.C.—but the notebooks themselves were missing. (The box’s seal was unbroken, suggesting that the works were stolen before the box was shipped.)

The notebooks were presumed lost for decades, until an anonymous man discovered four of the pocket-sized books among his father’s papers after his death. He tried to sell them at Sotheby’s auction house in New York, as all he knew about the works was that his late father had received them as a gift around 30 years prior. But since the works were stolen property, they couldn’t be resold.

Sotheby’s returned the rediscovered notebooks to the Library of Congress, much to the delight of historians, conservationists, and scholars. (The other six remain missing.) "This is definitely the most important literary material we could have hoped to recover of anything known in American literature," David Wigdor, who was then assistant chief of the Library of Congress’s manuscript division, told The Washington Post. "This material will actually be used by scholars. Their utility is quite transcendent."

6. ONE OF SHAKESPEARE'S FIRST FOLIOS WAS STOLEN FROM AN ENGLISH LIBRARY.

A sketch of author William Shakespeare writing while seated in a chair
Edward Gooch/Getty Images

Before William Shakespeare’s death in 1616, only half of his theatrical works had already been printed, in small books called quartos; no large-scale anthology of the Bard’s plays existed yet. Two of Shakespeare’s friends, John Heminge and Henry Condell, who belonged to his acting company The King’s Men, decided to change this: They took 36 of his plays and gave them to publishers Edward Blount and Isaac Jaggard.

In 1623, the first collected edition of Shakespeare’s plays was finally completed. Its given name is Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies, but most scholars simply refer to it as the “First Folio,” in reference to the large-sized paper the works were printed on. (In those days, this kind of paper was usually reserved for royal proclamations and for important works, like theology and history.) Since multiple versions existed of some plays, Shakespeare’s friends claimed to have used “original” copies for the First Folio, although nobody knows for sure if this is true.

Experts believe that only 750 or fewer copies of the First Folio were published, and today, only 233 known copies survive worldwide. These books are worth millions of dollars each—which is likely the reason why in 1998, someone stole a First Folio from the Durham Cathedral library in England.

In 2008, a decade after the book’s theft, a man named Raymond Scott brought it to the Folger Shakespeare Library in Washington, D.C., and requested an evaluation and appraisal. Scott claimed he’d been given the work as a gift in Cuba, from a friend whose mother had safeguarded the “old English Book” in a chest.

Right off the bat, Folger staff knew that the work was a First Folio, and Stephen C. Massey, a famous rare-book appraiser, confirmed it was the one stolen from Durham. The Folger contacted authorities, and police eventually arrested Scott. Nobody could prove if he was, in fact, the person who originally stole the Durham First Folio, but in 2010, Scott was convicted of handling stolen goods and smuggling the valuable work out of England. He died in prison in 2012.

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By Benjamin D. Maxham, Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons
11 Simple Facts About Henry David Thoreau
By Benjamin D. Maxham, Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons
By Benjamin D. Maxham, Public Domain, Wikimedia Commons

In his book Walden, Henry David Thoreau declared his love of nature, simplicity, and independence. Although most people know about Thoreau’s time in Walden Woods, as well as his Transcendentalism, abolitionist views, and writing on civil disobedience, there’s a lot more to uncover about him. In honor of his birthday (he would’ve turned 201 years old today), here are 11 things you might not have known about Henry David Thoreau.

1. WE’RE PROBABLY MISPRONOUNCING HIS NAME.

Born in Concord, Massachusetts in 1817, David Henry Thoreau switched his first and middle names after graduating from Harvard. His legal name, though, was always David Henry. Although most people today pronounce Thoreau’s surname with the emphasis on the second syllable, he most likely pronounced it “THOR-oh.” Ralph Waldo Emerson’s son, Edward, wrote that the accent in Thoreau’s name was on the first syllable, and other friends called him “Mr. Thorough.”

2. HE INVENTED A MACHINE TO IMPROVE PENCILS.

In the 1820s, Thoreau’s father started manufacturing black-lead pencils. Between teaching students, surveying land, and working as a handyman, Thoreau made money by working for his family’s pencil business. After researching German techniques for making pencils, he invented a grinding machine that made better quality plumbago (a mixture of the lead, graphite, and clay inside a pencil). After his father died, Thoreau ran the family’s pencil company.

3. HE ACCIDENTALLY BURNED HUNDREDS OF ACRES OF WOODS.

In 1844, a year before moving into a house in Walden Woods, the 26-year-old Thoreau was cooking fish he had caught with a friend in the woods outside Concord. The grass around the fire ignited, and the flames burned between 100 and 300 acres of land, thanks to strong winds. Even years later, his neighbors disparagingly called him a rascal and a woods burner. In an 1850 journal entry, Thoreau described how the earth was “uncommonly dry”—there hadn’t been much rain—and how the fire “spread rapidly.” Although he initially felt guilty, he wrote that he soon realized that fire is natural, and lightning could have sparked a fire in the woods just as easily as his cooking accident did.

4. HIS HOUSE AT WALDEN POND LATER BECAME A PIGSTY.

After Thoreau left the home he built in Walden Woods in 1847, the structure went through multiple iterations. He sold the house to Emerson (it was on land that Emerson already owned), and Emerson sold it to his gardener. The gardener never moved in, so the house was empty until a farmer named James Clark bought it in 1849. Clark moved it to his nearby farm and used it to store grain. In 1868, the roof of the building was removed from the base and used to cover a pigsty. In 1875, the rest of the structure was used as a shed before its timber was used to fix Clark’s barn. Today, you can see replicas of Thoreau’s house near Walden Pond in Massachusetts.

5. HE AND HIS BROTHER WERE CAUGHT IN A LOVE TRIANGLE.

In 1839, Thoreau wrote in his journal about how he fell in love with Ellen Sewall, an 18-year-old from Cape Cod. In 1840, Thoreau’s older brother John proposed marriage to Sewall but was rejected. So, like any good brother, Thoreau wrote a letter to Sewall, proposing that she marry him instead. Sewall rejected him too, probably due to her family disapproving of the Thoreau family’s liberal views on Christianity.

Despite the aforementioned marriage proposal, some historians and biographers speculate that Thoreau was gay. He never married, reportedly preferred celibacy, and his journals reveal references to male bodies but no female ones.

6. DESPITE POPULAR MISCONCEPTION, HE WASN’T A LONER.

Historians have debunked the misconception that Thoreau was a selfish hermit who lived alone so he could stay away from other people. Rather than being a loner, Thoreau was an individualist who was close to his family members and lived with Emerson’s family (on and off) for years. To build his cabin in the woods, he got help from his friends including Emerson and Bronson Alcott, the father of Louisa May Alcott. During his stay in the woods, he frequently entertained guests, visited friends, and walked to the (nearby) town of Concord. At his funeral at Concord’s First Parish Church, a large group of friends attended to mourn and celebrate his life.

7. HE WAS A MINIMALIST.

Long before tiny houses were trendy, Thoreau wrote about the benefits of living a simple, minimalist lifestyle. In Walden, he wrote about giving up the luxuries of everyday life in order to quiet the mind and have time for thinking. “My greatest skill has been to want but little,” he wrote. Thoreau also related his love of simplicity to the craft of writing: “It is the fault of some excellent writers ... that they express themselves with too great fullness and detail. They give the most faithful, natural, and lifelike account of their sensations, mental and physical, but they lack moderation and sententiousness.”

8. HE TOOK COPIOUS NOTES.

Although he was a minimalist, Thoreau wrote an abundance of notes and ideas in his journals, essays, and letters. He jotted down his observations of nature, writing in detail about everything from how plant seeds spread across the land to the changing temperature of Walden Pond to animal behavior. In addition to his plethora of notes and environmental data, Thoreau also collected hundreds of plant specimens and birds’ eggs.

9. HE WAS PRAISED FOR HIS ORIGINALITY.

In 1862, newspapers widely reported the news of Thoreau’s death. Obituaries for the 44-year-old writer appeared in The Boston Transcript, The Boston Daily Advertiser, The Liberator, The Boston Journal, The New-York Daily Tribune, and The Salem Observer. The obituaries describe Thoreau as an “eccentric author” and “one of the most original thinkers our country has produced.”

10. HE DONATED HIS COLLECTIONS TO THE BOSTON SOCIETY OF NATURAL HISTORY.

After Thoreau’s death, the Boston Society of Natural History got a huge gift. Thoreau, a member, gave the society his collections of plants, Indian antiquities, and birds’ eggs and nests. The plants were pressed and numbered—there were more than 1000 species—and the Native American antiquities included stone weapons that Thoreau had found while walking in Concord.

11. DON HENLEY OF THE EAGLES IS A HUGE FAN.

As a big fan of both Thoreau and Transcendentalism, musician Don Henley of the Eagles started The Walden Woods Project in 1990 to stop 68 acres of Walden Woods from being turned into offices and condominiums. The project succeeded in saving the woods, and today The Walden Woods Project is a nonprofit organization that conserves Walden Woods, preserves Thoreau’s legacy, and manages an archive of Thoreau’s books, maps, letters, and manuscripts. In an interview with Preservation Magazine, Henley described the importance of preserving Walden Woods: “The pond and the woods that inspired the writing of Walden are historically significant not only because they were the setting for a great American classic, but also because Walden Woods was Henry David Thoreau's living laboratory, where he formulated his theory of forest succession, a precursor to contemporary ecological science.”

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Quentin Blake, courtesy Christie's Images Ltd. 2018
Matilda Illustrator Quentin Blake Is Auctioning Items From His Personal Collection of Drawings
Quentin Blake, courtesy Christie's Images Ltd. 2018
Quentin Blake, courtesy Christie's Images Ltd. 2018

When you think of Roald Dahl's classic books, chances are you're actually imagining Quentin Blake's work. Blake is the award-winning illustrator behind the signature imagery in beloved books like The BFG, Matilda, and The Twits. Now, Blake is auctioning off some of his drawings from his private collection through Christie's, giving the public a chance to own art intimately connected with these canonical children's books.

The illustrations on offer were completed by Blake over a period of some 40 years. They include preliminary studies, alternative versions of illustrations that made it into books like The Twits and The Enormous Crocodile (Blake's first collaboration with Dahl), and other related art. In addition to illustrations he drew for Dahl, there's artwork he created for his own books, for other authors, for hospitals (like the watercolor above, an alternative version of a drawing he made for the Rosie Birth Centre at Addenbrooke's Hospital, in Cambridge, UK), and for public exhibitions.

Below are just a few of the pieces available, currently ranging in starting bids from around $600 to more than $15,000.

A watercolor image of a witch dressed in black
"The Grand High Witch," 
an alternative illustration of the character from The Witches created for Blake's 2016 Roald Dahl Centenary Portraits project
Quentin Blake

A watercolor of a father with his arm around his son, holding a kite
"Danny and His Father," an alternative illustration of the characters from Danny the Champion of the World that Blake produced for his Roald Dahl Centenary Portraits
Quentin Blake

Four illustrations showing the BFG with his ears in different positions
“The BFG showing how he flaps his ears,” a preliminary drawing for the 1982 edition of The BFG
Quentin Blake

A watercolor of the BFG holding Sophie in the palm of his hand
“Sophie and the BFG,” an alternative illustration of the characters from The BFG created for the Roald Dahl Centenary Portraits
Quentin Blake

Take a look at the rest here before the auction ends on July 12. Proceeds from the auction will go to three nonprofits: The House of Illustration, Roald Dahl's Marvellous Children's Charity, and Survival International.

All images courtesy Christie's Images Ltd. 2018

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