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9 Molds Trying to Take Over Your Kitchen

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At some point in your life, you’ve likely rummaged around the kitchen for a tasty snack, opened it up, and discovered that your treat has been cheerfully consumed by a colorful fuzz. Although your reaction was probably simple—“Ick, mold!”—not all molds are made alike. There are actually a couple thousand of genera of mold within the kingdom Fungi, and many more species, each with its own special traits and talents. Specialists, generalists, molds that like it damp, or dry, or fruity—they’re living and breeding among us.

The fuzz you see is actually just the fruiting body of any given mold—namely, its spores. These hang out trying to catch a breeze on to something organic to grow on. Under the hairy bit is the body of the mold, the mycelium. If you were to cut open a moldy bagel instead of chucking it, you’d find that the mycelium’s feathery strands, called hyphae, had already feasted on the inside, excreting digestive enzymes to turn it into a smelly web.

Just what do these molds want with us and our edibles? “To reproduce and take over the world,” says Kathie Hodge, an associate professor of mycology at Cornell University. Hodge's research focuses on the classification of fungi—including molds. She also edits the Cornell Mushroom Blog.

Hodge says the ecological function of molds is to act as recyclers. But that definition “gives them short shrift," she adds. "Molds live their own vibrant and interesting lives.” Sometimes their drama plays out in your kitchen.

Here’s a tour of some of what Hodge calls the “small and elegant” entities waiting to turn your fridge into a fascinating fungus zoo:

1. RHIZOPUS STOLONIFER, A.K.A. BLACK BREAD MOLD

It’s likely that this white-then-black species is the one that took over your bagel. How? Hodge says spores may have landed on it back at the bakery, or maybe they first infiltrated some breadcrumbs that fell unnoticed behind your toaster. Rhizopus stolonifer is a bread specialist, getting to it early, eating it like crazy, and growing incredibly fast. Molds love sugar, “and as anyone on a low-carb diet knows, bread is starch, which is basically sugar and easy to break down,” says Hodge. Is it safe to eat a Rhizopus-infected bagel? “It would taste disgusting, so don’t go there."

2. PENICILLIUM CHRYSOGENUM

Moldy Bread
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It’s also possible that this puffy bluish mold is your bread-eating culprit. Yes, Penicillium is the same genus that brings you lifesaving penicillin. But don’t try to use your blue bagel as a home remedy. “I can’t tell you how many times people have said, ‘I have a cut on my arm, should I put moldy bread on it?’” sighs Hodge. Mold only morphs into antibiotics after it’s been extracted from its growth medium and purified in a lab and furthermore, the Pencillium group as a whole—there are over 300 species—is famous for making many and diverse toxins. Still, one species also makes blue cheese (Penicillium roqueforti), and another cures salami (Penicillium nalgiovense).

3. WALLEMIA SEBI

This is one of the true oddballs of the mold world—an extremophile that likes to live, as this name suggests, in extreme outposts. Extreme for a mold is a place that’s salty or super-sugary, and therefore, dehydrating. Enter Wallemia sebi, thick brownish blobs of which Hodge once found floating in her maple syrup. “It’s really slow and patient,” she says, hiding out and waiting for its time to pounce. “So, if you eat your maple syrup at a normal rate, you’re never going to see it.” Wallemia sebi is the source of some amount of controversy among Hodge’s colleagues. Some of them insist that it’s harmless. But remember, Hodge points out, “it’s been eating and excreting into your syrup. I highly recommend that people throw it out.”

4. ZYGOPHIALA JAMAICENSIS, A.K.A. FLYSPECK

flyspeck mold on green grapes
Patrick Hertzog/AFP/Getty Images

This mold is commonly found growing on apples (and grapes), and is also known as flyspeck. Confusingly, flyspeck can be caused by a variety of mold species, varying by region and type of apple. Flyspecked apples are usually snubbed by consumers, despite the fact that their little black bumps are harmless and grow only on the skin. “It’s a hard life, being a plant,” says Hodge. “Every one I can think of has multiple fungal problems.” If you find flyspeck on your fruit at home, console yourself in the knowledge that it came in from the orchard and likely isn’t lurking in your cupboards.

5. FUSARIUM VERTICILLIODES, A.K.A. MAIZE EAR ROT

Ever peeled open an ear of corn and found a patch of pink sliming the kernels? That’s Fusarium verticilliodes, part of a huge genus that produces some truly terrible mycotoxins. It loooooves both the sweet corn you buy at the market and the field corn that’s manufactured into corn chips and fake-meat patties. And it can survive processing to cause things like estrogenic effects and immune suppression. Hence, Fusarium is highly regulated to try to keep it out of our food supply. And oh yeah, some species have also been used to make biological warfare agents.

6. BOTRYTIS CINEREA, A.K.A. NOBLE ROT FUNGUS

mold on strawberries
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Fluffy grey Botrytis cinerea will gladly sink its spores into the strawberries in your fruit bowl. It’s not particularly toxic, says Hodge, but it can gobble up fruit with lightening speed. It comes in with your berries from the field, where damp conditions make it hard to eradicate. The upside: This mold species is also known as “noble rot.” When it turns up (uninvited) on grapes in vineyards, it dries them out and concentrates their flavor; the grapes can then be used to make sweet wines like Sauternes (from France) and Tokaji Aszú (from Hungary and Slovakia).

7. ASPERGILLUS NIGER, A.K.A. BLACK MOLD

“This one is interesting,” says Hodge. “It can grow on onions—it shows up as black flecks between the layers. And it can also cause ear infections in humans.” But its talents don’t end there; Aspergillus niger also causes you to exclaim, “Ooh, lemons,” when you drink certain manufactured “lemony” beverages. (“No,” corrects Hodge. “It’s mold.”) Niger’s sister, Aspergillus oryzae, is used to make miso and soy sauce. And another, the parrot-green Aspergillus flavus, which favors peanuts and tree nuts, “is the worst fungus I can think of,” says Hodge. Its crimes against humanity include causing liver cancer.

8. DIPLODIA NATALENSIS

rotten lemon put on wooden table
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Most of us have reached into the vegetable drawer and pulled out a green lemon (thanks for nothing, Penicillium digitatum). But Diplodia natalenis is responsible for an unattractive darkening—and sometimes, mush-ening—of a lemon’s stem end. This mold is also devious; it lives inside the dead wood of trees back at the grove and doesn’t actually show itself until the fruit’s already been picked, packed, and stored in your refrigerator.

9. MUCOR CIRCINELLOIDES

This little guy (gal? Other? Molds can produce spores asexually and often sexually, too) is something of a generalist. It likes fruit, vegetables, and dairy. To wit: a virulent subspecies of Mucor circinelloides was implicated in a nausea- and vomit-inducing episode that affected more than 200 people who’d eaten some moldy yogurt back in 2013. How virulent? Tests showed that it could survive passage through the digestive tract of lab mice. But how it got into the yogurt in the first place remains a mystery.

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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
3500-Year-Old Mummy Discovered in Forgotten Egyptian Tomb

As the site of the ancient city of Thebes, the modern-day Egyptian city of Luxor is filled with archaeological treasures. But until recently, two forgotten tombs—both located in the necropolis of Dra' Abu el-Naga, an important non-royal cemetery—hadn’t been fully explored. Now, National Geographic reports that experts have finally excavated these burial sites and discovered a 3500-year-old mummy, along with ornate funerary goods and colorful murals.

While excavating one of the two tombs, known as Kampp 150, experts found linen-wrapped remains that Egypt's Ministry of Antiquities believes belong to either "a person named Djehuty Mes, whose name was engraved on one of the walls ... [or] the scribe Maati, as his name and the name of his wife Mehi were inscribed on 50 funerary cones found in the tomb's rectangular chamber."

In addition to the mummy, archaeologists discovered wooden statues, masks, earthen pots, a cache of some 450 statuettes, and around 100 funerary cones—conical mud objects, which were often positioned outside a tomb's center, and could have served as identifying markers or as offerings—inside Kampp 150.

The Associated Press reported that the second tomb, known as Kampp 161, is thought to be approximately 3400 years old—about 100 years newer than its neighboring chamber—as its design is characteristic of other such structures dating back to the reigns of Amenhotep II and Thutmose IV.

Inside Kampp 161, archaeologists discovered wooden funerary masks, a decorated coffin, furniture shards, and the mural of a festival or party depicting the tomb's unknown resident and his wife receiving ceremonial offerings.

German scholar Friederike Kampp-Seyfried surveyed and numbered both tombs in the 1990s, which is how they got their names, but she did not fully excavate nor enter either one.

Officials celebrated the rediscovery of the tombs on Saturday, December 9, when they publicly announced the archaeological finds. They hope that discoveries like these will entice foreign travelers to visit Egypt, as political unrest has harmed the country's tourism industry in recent years.

“It’s truly an exceptional day,” Khaled al-Anani, Egypt's antiquities minister, said in a statement. “The 18th dynasty private tombs were already known. But it’s the first time" anyone's ever entered them.

Check out some pictures of the newly revealed relics below.

Mustafa al-Waziri, director general of Luxor's Antiquities, points at an ancient Egyptian mural found at the newly discovered 'Kampp 161' tomb at Draa Abul Naga necropolis.
Mustafa al-Waziri, director general of Luxor's Antiquities, points at an ancient Egyptian mural found at the newly discovered 'Kampp 161' tomb at Draa Abul Naga necropolis on the west Nile bank of the southern Egyptian city of Luxor, about 400 miles south of the capital Cairo, on December 9, 2017.
STRINGER/AFP/Getty Images

An Egyptian archaeological technician restores artifacts found at the newly discovered 'Kampp 161' tomb at Draa Abul Naga necropolis in Luxor, Egypt.
An Egyptian archaeological technician restores artifacts found at the newly discovered 'Kampp 161' tomb at Draa Abul Naga necropolis on the west Nile bank of the southern Egyptian city of Luxor, about 400 miles south of the capital Cairo, on December 9, 2017.
STRINGER/AFP/Getty Images

An Egyptian laborer stands next to an ancient Egyptian mural found at the newly discovered 'Kampp 161' tomb at Draa Abul Naga necropolis in Luxor, Egypt.
STRINGER/AFP/Getty Images

Ancient Egyptian wooden funerary masks and small statuettes found in and retrieved from the newly discovered 'Kampp 150' tomb at Draa Abul Naga necropolis in Luxor, Egypt.
A picture taken on December 9, 2017 shows ancient Egyptian wooden funerary masks and small statuettes found in and retrieved from the newly discovered 'Kampp 150' tomb at Draa Abul Naga necropolis on the west Nile bank of the southern Egyptian city of Luxor, about 400 miles south of the capital Cairo.
STRINGER/AFP/Getty Images

[h/t National Geographic]

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Kohske Takahashi, i-Perception (2017)
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Can You Figure Out This Newly Discovered Optical Illusion?
Kohske Takahashi, i-Perception (2017)
Kohske Takahashi, i-Perception (2017)

Ready to have your mind boggled? Take a look at the image above. What shape are the lines? Do they look like curves, or zigzags?

The image, spotted by Digg, is a new type of optical illusion published in the aptly named journal i-Perception. Discovered by Japanese psychologist Kohske Takahashi, it’s called the “curvature blindness illusion,” because—spoiler—the contrast of the lines against the gray background makes our eye see some of the lines as zigzags when, in fact, they’re all smooth curves.

The illusion relies on a few different factors, according to the three experiments Takahashi conducted. For it to work, the lines have to change contrast just at or after the peak of the curve, reversing the contrast against the background. You’ll notice that the zigzags only appear against the gray section of the background, and even against that gray background, not every line looks angled. The lines that look curvy change contrast midway between the peaks and the valleys of the line, whereas the lines that look like they contain sharp angles change contrast right at the peak and valley. The curve has to be relatively gentle, too.

Go ahead, stare at it for a while.

[h/t Digg]

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