New Cancer Treatment “Remembers” Tumors and Won’t Let Them Regrow

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iStock

Researchers have found a way to train the immune system to eradicate cancer cells and “remember” them in case they try to return. A report of the technique was published today in the journal Science Immunology.

Cancer is a stealthy invader. Rather than facing the body’s defenses head-on, it manipulates the sentries of our immune system, shutting them down or even turning them against us.

One commonly hijacked sentry is called the CD4+ T regulatory (Treg) cell. When they’ve been bamboozled by cancer, Treg cells tell our defenses to leave tumors alone. So if we could find a way to shut those Treg cells up, our immune systems would, theoretically, treat cancer like the intruder it is. The problem is that Treg cells are themselves kind of slippery and hard to target with drugs.

One possible way in is a molecule called LAP, which has previously been linked to worse outcomes for people with cancer.

To learn more, researchers examined interactions between Treg cells and LAP in mice with melanoma, colon cancer, and brain cancer. They found that zapping the molecule with special anti-LAP antibodies did the trick, effectively shutting the hijacked cells down so the immune system could do its work. Mice treated with these antibodies had lower levels of Treg cells and cancer cells.

Better yet, when the researchers mixed the anti-LAP antibodies with tumor vaccines, they discovered that tumors wouldn’t grow, even in mice exposed to cancer-causing proteins. The effects of this cocktail lasted for months.

Best of all, the treatment seemed to create “memories” of the tumors in the rodents’ immune systems, enabling them to recognize cancer cells more quickly and prevent relapse.

Before you get too excited, we should mention a few things about these experiments. First, as we’ve said before and will say again, mice are not people. Second, the treatments were tested under the mice’s skin, not in the places where these tumors would naturally grow.

Still, the researchers say, the anti-LAP molecules are a good step, and they are eager to explore them further.

A Simple Skin Swab Could Soon Identify People at Risk for Parkinson's

iStock.com/stevanovicigor
iStock.com/stevanovicigor

More than 200 years have passed since physician James Parkinson first identified the degenerative neurological disorder that bears his name. Over five million people worldwide suffer from Parkinson’s disease, a neurological condition characterized by muscle tremors and other symptoms. Diagnosis is based on those symptoms rather than blood tests, brain imaging, or any other laboratory evidence.

Now, science may be close to a simple and non-invasive method for diagnosing the disease based on a waxy substance called sebum, which people secrete through their skin. And it’s thanks to a woman with the unique ability to sniff out differences in the sebum of those with Parkinson's—years before a diagnosis can be made.

The Guardian describes how researchers at the University of Manchester partnered with a nurse named Joy Milne, a "super smeller" who can detect a unique odor emanating from Parkinson's patients that is unnoticeable to most people. Working with Tilo Kunath, a neurobiologist at Edinburgh University, Milne and the researchers pinpointed the strongest odor coming from the patients' upper backs, where sebum-emitting pores are concentrated.

For a new study in the journal ACS Central Science, the researchers analyzed skin swabs from 64 Parkinson's and non-Parkinson's subjects and found that three substances—eicosane, hippuric acid, and octadecanal—were present in higher concentrations in the Parkinson’s patients. One substance, perillic aldehyde, was lower. Milne confirmed that these swabs bore the distinct, musky odor associated with Parkinson’s patients.

Researchers also found no difference between patients who took drugs to control symptoms and those who did not, meaning that drug metabolites had no influence on the odor or compounds.

The next step will be to swab a a much larger cohort of Parkinson’s patients and healthy volunteers to see if the results are consistent and reliable. If these compounds are able to accurately identify Parkinson’s, researchers are optimistic that it could lead to earlier diagnosis and more effective interventions.

[h/t The Guardian]

World’s Oldest Stored Sperm Has Produced Some Healthy Baby Sheep

A stock photo of a lamb
A stock photo of a lamb
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It’s not every day that you stumble across a 50-year-old batch of frozen sheep sperm. So when Australian researchers rediscovered a wriggly little time capsule that had been left behind by an earlier researcher, they did the obvious: they tried to create some lambs. As Smithsonian reports, they pulled it off, too.

The semen, which came from several prize rams, had been frozen in 1968 by Dr. Steve Salamon, a sheep researcher from the University of Sydney. After bringing the sample out of storage, researchers thawed it out and conducted a few lab tests. They determined that its viability and DNA integrity were still intact, so they decided to put it to the ultimate test: Would it get a sheep pregnant? The sperm was artificially inseminated into 56 Merino ewes, and lo and behold, 34 of them became pregnant and gave birth to healthy lambs.

Of course, this experiment wasn’t just for fun. They wanted to test whether decades-old sperm—frozen in liquid nitrogen at -320°F—would still be viable for breeding purposes. Remarkably, the older sperm had a slightly higher pregnancy rate (61 percent) than sheep sperm that had been frozen for 12 months and used to impregnate ewes in a different experiment (in that case, the success rate was 59 percent).

“We believe this is the oldest viable stored semen of any species in the world and definitely the oldest sperm used to produce offspring,” researcher Dr. Jessica Rickard said in a statement.

Researchers say this experiment also lets them assess the genetic progress of selective breeding over the last five decades. “In that time, we’ve been trying to make better, more productive sheep [for the wool industry],” associate professor Simon de Graaf said. “This gives us a resource to benchmark and compare.”

[h/t Smithsonian]

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