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Live Smarter

Heading Overseas? You Might Need a Measles Shot

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Planning a summer trip abroad? Between digging out your passport and booking hotels, find some time to look up your medical records. If you're older than 28 years old, you may need a measles vaccination—even if you were inoculated as a kid.

As Slate explains, prior to 1989, the Centers for Disease Control only recommended that children receive one dose of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine. But since measles outbreaks were still far from being a thing of the past, health officials revised the guidelines to recommend two doses. They also recommended that travelers going abroad receive a measles booster shot if they had just received one MMR vaccination and had never experienced a full-blown case of the disease.

Travelers who were born before 1957 can ignore this advice, as they were probably exposed to a prior measles epidemic and are thereby immune. But if you were born between then and 1989, check with your doctor (or dig up your medical records) to ensure you’re fully covered. If not, get the shot.

Thanks to the two-dose measles vaccine and a robust vaccination program, the Americas were declared measles-free in 2000. The disease is still prevalent in other countries around the world: Measles has surged across Europe in recent months, as many people there haven’t received the second dose of the two-dose measles vaccine. It’s also common, and even deadly, in developing countries, including parts of Africa and Asia.

Today, measles is relatively rare in the U.S., but imported cases do pop up. Typically, they occur because someone who was either unvaccinated or under-vaccinated traveled abroad and contracted the disease, then brought it home and transmitted it to others who hadn't been immunized.

This raises the question: Why are Americans still going abroad without getting a measles booster shot? As a new study published in the Annals of Internal Medicine shows, many health-conscious travelers who aren't 100 percent measles-immune refuse the shot because they’re not worried about contracting the disease. But judging by the recent measles surge in Europe—not to mention a new measles outbreak in Minnesota that's linked to anti-vaccination campaigns—they should be.

[h/t Slate]

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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva
Man Buys Two Metric Tons of LEGO Bricks; Sorts Them Via Machine Learning
May 21, 2017
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iStock // Ekaterina Minaeva

Jacques Mattheij made a small, but awesome, mistake. He went on eBay one evening and bid on a bunch of bulk LEGO brick auctions, then went to sleep. Upon waking, he discovered that he was the high bidder on many, and was now the proud owner of two tons of LEGO bricks. (This is about 4400 pounds.) He wrote, "[L]esson 1: if you win almost all bids you are bidding too high."

Mattheij had noticed that bulk, unsorted bricks sell for something like €10/kilogram, whereas sets are roughly €40/kg and rare parts go for up to €100/kg. Much of the value of the bricks is in their sorting. If he could reduce the entropy of these bins of unsorted bricks, he could make a tidy profit. While many people do this work by hand, the problem is enormous—just the kind of challenge for a computer. Mattheij writes:

There are 38000+ shapes and there are 100+ possible shades of color (you can roughly tell how old someone is by asking them what lego colors they remember from their youth).

In the following months, Mattheij built a proof-of-concept sorting system using, of course, LEGO. He broke the problem down into a series of sub-problems (including "feeding LEGO reliably from a hopper is surprisingly hard," one of those facts of nature that will stymie even the best system design). After tinkering with the prototype at length, he expanded the system to a surprisingly complex system of conveyer belts (powered by a home treadmill), various pieces of cabinetry, and "copious quantities of crazy glue."

Here's a video showing the current system running at low speed:

The key part of the system was running the bricks past a camera paired with a computer running a neural net-based image classifier. That allows the computer (when sufficiently trained on brick images) to recognize bricks and thus categorize them by color, shape, or other parameters. Remember that as bricks pass by, they can be in any orientation, can be dirty, can even be stuck to other pieces. So having a flexible software system is key to recognizing—in a fraction of a second—what a given brick is, in order to sort it out. When a match is found, a jet of compressed air pops the piece off the conveyer belt and into a waiting bin.

After much experimentation, Mattheij rewrote the software (several times in fact) to accomplish a variety of basic tasks. At its core, the system takes images from a webcam and feeds them to a neural network to do the classification. Of course, the neural net needs to be "trained" by showing it lots of images, and telling it what those images represent. Mattheij's breakthrough was allowing the machine to effectively train itself, with guidance: Running pieces through allows the system to take its own photos, make a guess, and build on that guess. As long as Mattheij corrects the incorrect guesses, he ends up with a decent (and self-reinforcing) corpus of training data. As the machine continues running, it can rack up more training, allowing it to recognize a broad variety of pieces on the fly.

Here's another video, focusing on how the pieces move on conveyer belts (running at slow speed so puny humans can follow). You can also see the air jets in action:

In an email interview, Mattheij told Mental Floss that the system currently sorts LEGO bricks into more than 50 categories. It can also be run in a color-sorting mode to bin the parts across 12 color groups. (Thus at present you'd likely do a two-pass sort on the bricks: once for shape, then a separate pass for color.) He continues to refine the system, with a focus on making its recognition abilities faster. At some point down the line, he plans to make the software portion open source. You're on your own as far as building conveyer belts, bins, and so forth.

Check out Mattheij's writeup in two parts for more information. It starts with an overview of the story, followed up with a deep dive on the software. He's also tweeting about the project (among other things). And if you look around a bit, you'll find bulk LEGO brick auctions online—it's definitely a thing!

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Name the Author Based on the Character
May 23, 2017
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