Henry Guttmann/Getty Images
Henry Guttmann/Getty Images

11 High-Flying Facts About Plane Crazy

Henry Guttmann/Getty Images
Henry Guttmann/Getty Images

Mickey Mouse may seem pretty spry, but he made his first public appearance to test audiences 89 years ago this week. No, the cartoon wasn't the much-beloved Steamboat Willie—it was Plane Crazy, a six-minute silent short that was made in a matter of weeks. Here's what you need to know about Mickey's high-flying debut.


In 1927, Walt Disney and his partner, Ub Iwerks, had recently lost the rights to Oswald the Lucky Rabbit—a popular character they had created—to Charles Mintz, a producer and distributor for whom they had been making cartoons. To add insult to injury, Mintz also hired most of the animators out from under Disney and Iwerks. Determined to come up with something just as good, the duo worked on the short that would become Plane Crazy while simultaneously finishing their last three Oswald shorts for Mintz.


To keep the project top secret, Iwerks drew in an isolated room away from the other animators working on the last Oswald cartoons. He prided himself on his breakneck pace, often completing as many as 700 drawings a day. Other animators who had stayed loyal to Disney worked behind high black curtains to prevent the “traitor” employees from seeing.


When it came time to ink Iwerks’s drawings onto cels, Walt, his wife Lilly, and two of his sisters-in-law huddled together in Disney’s garage and did them by hand. They went back to the studio and photographed the cels late at night when no one else was there.


Black and white photo of pilot Charles Lindbergh in the cockpit of a postal plane.
General Photographic Agency/Getty Images

Disney decided on a plane-themed cartoon for Mickey’s debut to take advantage of the public’s love of aviator Charles Lindbergh. Lindbergh had made his famous transatlantic flight just the year before.


Not many people got to witness Mickey’s first appearance, and the lucky few who did had no idea that they were witnessing history. On May 17, 1928, a Los Angeles theater showed Plane Crazy to test audiences for one day only. Walt sat in the back of the theater and monitored the audience’s response. It was nearly unanimous: Everyone loved the little mouse.


Though Mickey and pals tested really well with audiences, the silent short failed to pick up a distributor. The Jazz Singer had come out the year before, and in a flash of inspiration, Walt decided that synchronized sound was the future of cartoons.


Rather than apply sound to Plane Crazy retroactively, Disney decided to try the synchronized sound technique on the short the team was currently working on—Steamboat Willie. Mickey’s stint as a riverboat pilot was released, to much fanfare, on November 18, 1928. It was only after that success that Disney and Iwerks went back and added sound to Plane Crazy and The Gallopin’ Gaucho, another silent short they had worked on prior to Steamboat Willie. As a result, Plane Crazy was actually the third Mickey short to be released even though it was the first to be completed.


Of course, much is made of the fact that Plane Crazy is technically Mickey’s first appearance, but it’s also Minnie’s debut, which makes them sweethearts from the get-go. (Though if you actually watch the short, she’s not exactly thrilled about the prospect just yet.) It also marks the first appearance of Clarabelle Cow.


According to Disney records, the entire short—minus the sound—was made for a mere $1772. That’s roughly $25,339 in 2017 dollars.


Though Plane Crazy was groundbreaking at the time, by the time Disney’s children saw the first Mickey Mouse cartoon later in life, they were unimpressed. The kids were reportedly “astonished” by how crudely drawn he was, with sticks for arms and legs and a circular torso.


You can still get a taste of what it might have been like to see Plane Crazy in a theater back in 1928. The Main Street Cinema at Disneyland still runs six old Mickey Mouse cartoons today: Plane Crazy, Steamboat Willie, The Moose Hunt, Traffic Troubles, The Dognapper, and Mickey’s Polo Team.

Or, you can watch it right here:

Karl Walter, Getty Images
When the FBI Investigated the 'Murder' of Nine Inch Nails's Trent Reznor
Karl Walter, Getty Images
Karl Walter, Getty Images

The two people standing over the body, Michigan State Police detective Paul Wood told the Hard Copy cameras, “had a distinctive-type uniform on. As I recall: black pants, some type of leather jacket with a design on it, and one was wearing combat boots. The other was wearing what looked like patent leather shoes. So if it was a homicide, I was thinking it was possibly a gang-type homicide.”

Wood was describing a puzzling case local police, state police, and eventually the FBI had worked hard to solve for over a year. The mystery began in 1989, when farmer Robert Reed spotted a circular group of objects floating over his farm just outside of rural Burr Oak, Michigan; it turned out to be a cluster of weather balloons attached to a Super 8 camera.

When the camera landed on his property, the surprised farmer didn't develop the footage—he turned it over to the police. Some local farmers had recently gotten into trouble for letting wild marijuana grow on the edges of their properties, and Reed thought the balloons and camera were a possible surveillance technique. But no state or local jurisdictions used such rudimentary methods, so the state police in East Lansing decided to develop the film. What they saw shocked them.

A city street at night; a lifeless male body with a mysterious substance strewn across his face; two black-clad men standing over the body as the camera swirled away up into the sky, with a third individual seen at the edge of the frame running away, seemingly as fast as possible. Michigan police immediately began analyzing the footage for clues, and noticed the lights of Chicago’s elevated train system, which was over 100 miles away.

It was the first clue in what would become a year-long investigation into what they believed was either a cult killing or gang murder. When they solved the “crime” of what they believed was a real-life snuff film, they were more shocked than when the investigation began: The footage was from the music video for “Down In It,” the debut single from industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails, and the supposed dead body was the group's very-much-alive lead singer, Trent Reznor.


In 1989, Nine Inch Nails was about to release their debut album, Pretty Hate Machine, which would go on to be certified triple platinum in the United States. The record would define the emerging industrial rock sound that Reznor and his rotating cast of bandmates would experiment with throughout the 1990s and even today on albums like The Downward Spiral and The Slip.

The band chose the song “Down In It”—a track with piercing vocals, pulsing electronic drums, sampled sound effects, and twisted nursery rhyme-inspired lyrics—as Pretty Hate Machine's first single. They began working with H-Gun, a Chicago-based multimedia team led by filmmakers Eric Zimmerman and Benjamin Stokes (who had created videos for such bands as Ministry and Revolting Cocks), and sketched out a rough idea for the music video.

Filmed on location among warehouses and parking garages in Chicago, the video was supposed to culminate in a shot with a leather-jacketed Reznor running to the top of a building, while two then-members of the band followed him wearing studded jumpsuits; the video would fade out with an epic floating zoom shot to imply that Reznor's cornstarch-for-blood-covered character had fallen off the building and died in the street. Because the cash-strapped upstarts didn’t have enough money for a fancy crane to achieve the shot for their video, they opted to tie weather balloons to the camera and let it float up from Reznor, who was lying in the street surrounded by his bandmates. They eventually hoped to play the footage backward to get the shot in the final video.

Instead, the Windy City lived up to its name and quickly whisked the balloons and camera away. With Reznor playing dead and his bandmates looking down at him, only one of the filmmakers noticed. He tried to chase down the runaway camera—which captured his pursuit—but it was lost, forcing them to finish shooting the rest of the video and release it without the planned shot from the missing footage in September of 1989.

Meanwhile, unbeknownst to the band, a drama involving their lost camera was unfolding in southwest Michigan. Police there eventually involved the Chicago police, whose detectives determined that the footage had been filmed in an alley in the city's Fulton River District. After Chicago authorities found no homicide reports matching the footage for the neighborhood and that particular time frame, they handed the video over to the FBI, whose pathologists reportedly said that, based on the substance on the individual, the body in the video was rotting.


The "substance" in question was actually the result of the low-quality film and the color of the cornstarch on the singer’s face, which had also been incorporated into the press photos for Pretty Hate Machine. It was a nod to the band's early live shows, in which Reznor would spew cornstarch and chocolate syrup on his band members and the audience. “It looks really great under the lights, grungey, a sort of anti-Bon Jovi and the whole glamour thing,” Reznor said in a 1991 interview.

With no other easy options, and in order to generate any leads that might help them identify the victim seen in the video, the authorities distributed flyers to Chicago schools asking if anyone knew any details behind the strange “killing.”

The tactic worked. A local art student was watching MTV in 1991 and saw the distinctive video for “Down In It,” which reminded him of one of the flyers he had seen at school. He contacted the Chicago police to tip them off to who their supposed "murder victim" really was. Nine Inch Nails’s manager was notified, and he told Reznor and the filmmakers what had really happened to their lost footage.

“It’s interesting that our top federal agency, the Federal Bureau of [Investigation], couldn’t crack the Super 8 code,” co-director Zimmerman said in an interview. As for Wood and any embarrassment law enforcement had after the investigation: “I thought it was our duty, one way or the other, to determine what was on that film,” he said.

“My initial reaction was that it was really funny that something could be that blown out of proportion with this many people worked up about it,” Reznor said, and later told an interviewer, “There was talk that I would have to appear and talk to prove that I was alive.” Even though—in the eyes of state, local, and federal authorities—he was reportedly dead for over a year, Reznor didn’t seem to be bothered by it: “Somebody at the FBI had been watching too much Hitchcock or David Lynch or something,” he reasoned.

Courtesy of Park Circus and MGM
West Side Story Is Returning to Theaters This Weekend
Courtesy of Park Circus and MGM
Courtesy of Park Circus and MGM

As Chris Pratt and a gang of prehistoric creatures get ready to face off against some animated superheroes for this weekend’s box office dominance, an old rivalry is brewing once again on Manhattan’s Upper West Side. West Side Story—Robert Wise and Jerome Robbins’s classic big-screen rendering of Leonard Bernstein and Stephen Sondheim’s Broadway musical—is returning to cinemas for the first time in nearly 30 years.

As part of TCM’s Big Screen Classics Series, West Side Story will have special screening engagements at more than 600 theaters across the country on Sunday, June 24 at 2 p.m. and 7 p.m. If you can’t make it this weekend, encores will screen at the same time on Wednesday, June 27. The film—which is being re-released courtesy of TCM, Fathom Events, Park Circus, and Metro Goldwyn Mayer—will be presented in its original widescreen format, and include its original mid-film intermission. (Though its 2.5-hour runtime is practically standard nowadays, that wasn’t the case a half-century ago.) The screening will include an introduction and some post-credit commentary by TCM’s Ben Mankiewicz.

West Side Story, which was named Best Picture of 1961, is a musical retelling of Romeo and Juliet that sees star-crossed lovers Maria (Natalie Wood) and Tony (Richard Beymer) navigate the challenges of immigration, racial tension, and inner-city life in mid-century Manhattan—but with lots of singing and dancing. In addition to being named Best Picture, the beloved film took home another nine Oscars, including Best Director, Best Supporting Actor and Actress (for George Chakiris and Rita Moreno, respectively), and Best Music—obviously.

To find out if West Side Story is screening near you, and to purchase tickets, visit Fathom Events’s website.


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