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© Royal Tyrrell Museum
© Royal Tyrrell Museum

Dinosaur Fossils Don’t Get Much Better Than This

© Royal Tyrrell Museum
© Royal Tyrrell Museum

Attention dinosaur nerds: if you haven’t already, you’re going to want to add Alberta, Canada, to your bucket list, as the province now hosts one of the most spectacular dino fossils the world has ever seen.

Alberta is well known as home to one of the densest dinosaur deposits on the planet. The Canadian Rockies in general are rich in both fossils and fossil fuels, and the search for one has not infrequently led to the other. The latest stunner was unearthed in 2011 by workers in a mine near Fort McMurray, who knew something was amiss when their bucket pulled up oddly patterned, deep-brown lumps of some unfamiliar mineral. They dug in farther, more carefully, and that’s when they found it: a 9-foot-long chunk of monster, sculpted in stone.

But there had been no sculptor, only time and happenstance. The 2500-pound stone that eventually emerged was not a skull, or a footprint, or an egg. It was a petrified dinosaur.

“We don’t just have a skeleton,” Caleb Brown of the Royal Tyrrell Museum, where the dinosaur is on display, told National Geographic. “We have a dinosaur as it would have been.”


©Royal Tyrrell Museum

And not just any dinosaur, either. The hulking, armored beast preserved in the oil sands is new to science, the first of its species ever found. We know that it’s a type of ankylosaur called a nodosaur, and that its last days likely took place somewhere between 110 and 112 million years ago.


©Royal Tyrrell Museum

The recovered fossil contains only the dinosaur’s front end to its hips. In life, the nodosaur would have been 18 feet long and almost 3000 pounds. If that wasn’t enough to keep the haters away, it also had a pair of 20-inch spikes protruding from its shoulders, like a boss. Even in death, this herbivore looks tough.

Needless to say, dinosaur researchers are beside themselves with glee. The preservation is so good, paleobiologist Jakob Vinther of the University of Bristol told National Geographic, that “it might have been walking around a couple of weeks ago.”

[h/t National Geographic]

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Courtesy of Bournemouth University
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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
Fossilized Footprints Show Ice Age Hunters Ganged Up on Giant Sloths
Courtesy of Bournemouth University
Courtesy of Bournemouth University

They just don't make sloths like they used to. Giant ground sloths from the Ice Age wielded razor-sharp claws and stood 7 feet tall, and new evidence suggests that humans—even children—stalked and hunted them.

By analyzing fossilized footprints found in the salt flats of New Mexico, researchers at Bournemouth University in the UK figured out how prehistoric humans managed to outsmart these furry behemoths. The tracks, which are between 10,000 and 15,000 years old, show two overlapping sets of footprints belonging to both man and beast. Researchers deduced that these early hunters aligned their footprints with the sloth's to avoid detection and sneak up on their prey. The findings were published in the journal Science Advances.

Human footprints inside of a larger sloth footprint
Courtesy of Matthew Bennett, Bournemouth University

"Getting two sets of fossil footprints that interact, that show you the behavioral ecology, is very, very rare," Matthew Bennett, one of the researchers at Bournemouth, told Reuters.

They also found another set of human footprints, leading researchers to believe that hunters traveled in packs and ganged up on the sloth, with one group distracting the animal from a safe distance while another attempted to land a fatal blow. The clue was in marks they dubbed "flailing circles," which suggested that the sloth rose on its hind legs and swung around to defend itself. Anywhere they found flailing circles, human footprints followed.

The presence of children's tracks also showed that hunting was a family affair, but it probably wasn't as fun (or as safe) as going to a modern-day zoo. The prints were taken from New Mexico's White Sands National Monument, which has the "largest concentration of human and Ice Age giant megafauna prints in the Americas," according to researchers. The remote part of the park where they conducted their research is not open to the public.

Modern sloths are related to the giant ground sloth, which went extinct about 11,000 years ago, likely due to over-hunting by humans, scientists say. The fossilized footprints were digitized and preserved for future research using 3D modeling techniques.

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Stephane De Sakutin, AFP/Getty Images
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Stones, Bones, and Wrecks
Scientists May Have Finally Figured Out Why We Have Eyebrows
A Neanderthal skull
A Neanderthal skull
Stephane De Sakutin, AFP/Getty Images

If you look at a pictures of some of the earlier branches of humanity's family tree, like Neanderthals or Homo erectus, you might notice that Homo sapiens got off relatively lightly, eyebrow-wise. Most early hominins had thick, bony brow ridges rather than the smooth brows of modern humans. For years, researchers have been arguing over why those thick ridges existed—and why modern humans evolved tinier brows. A new study suggests that heavy brow ridges had social usefulness that was more important than their physiological function.

Previous research has suggested that thick brow ridges helped connect early hominins' eye sockets with their brain cavities, or protected the skull from the physical stress put on it by chewing jaws, or even helped early hominins take punches to the face.

The new study by University of York researchers, published in the journal Nature Ecology & Evolution, used a digital model of a fossil skull, thought to be between 125,000 and 300,000 years old, of an extinct species called Homo heidelbergensis that evolved sometime between 300,000 and 600,000 years ago in what is now Zambia. The researchers manipulated the model, changing the size of the brow ridge and seeing what happened when they applied different bite pressures. They found that the brow ridge was much bigger than it needed to be if its purpose was just to connect the eye sockets with the brain case, and that it didn't seem to protect the skull from the force of biting.

Instead, the researchers suggest that the brow ridge played a social role. Other primates have similar brow ridges that serve a social purpose rather than a mechanical one, like male mandrills, whose colorful, heavy-browed muzzles serve as dominance displays. Heavy brow ridges may have played a similar role in early human species.

As Homo sapiens evolved, more subtle communication may have taken precedence over the permanent social signal of a giant brow ridge. As foreheads became more vertical, eyebrows could move more freely and subtly, leading to important social signals in modern humans, like expressions of surprise or indignation.

An accompanying analysis in the same journal, by Spanish paleontologist Markus Bastir, cautions that the results of the new study are appealing, but should be taken with a grain of salt. The specimen used for the digital model was missing a mandible, and the researchers subbed in a mandible from a Neanderthal, a related species but still a distinct one from Homo heidelbergensis. This may have altered the analysis of the model and bite stresses. Still, the study provides "exciting prospects for future research," he writes.

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