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Felice Frankel
Felice Frankel

This Electric Dipstick Zaps the Pollutants Out of Water

Felice Frankel
Felice Frankel

There’s no such thing as too many good ideas when it comes to making more clean water for our thirsty planet. The latest: a customizable electric filtration device that zaps contaminants clear out of the water. The device’s creators describe it in the journal Energy and Environmental Science.

There are currently three basic types of water filtration processes: membrane filtration, like the type in your water pitcher; electrodialysis; and capacitive deionization. All three methods work quite well, but the first option is expensive and can’t catch small amounts of contamination, and the latter two require lots of electricity to run—all significant obstacles in impoverished regions where resources are already scarce.

So a group of chemical engineers from the U.S. and Germany teamed up to make something better. Their solution is surprisingly simple: a set of electrically charged dipsticks that can target pesticides, chemical waste, and even prescription drugs.

Each dipstick is an electrode coated with what are called Faradaic materials. The coatings can be treated to make them either positively or negatively charged, and to resonate with—and thus zap—specific molecules.


Melanie Gonick/MIT

To test the dipsticks, the researchers immersed them in water contaminated with very low doses of ibuprofen and different types of pesticide. The setup worked beautifully, targeting and eliminating pollutant molecules even at levels as low as a few parts per million.

The new technology is also incredibly energy efficient, requiring so little energy that it could easily be powered by solar panels in remote areas with no other access to electricity.

Matthew Suss of the Technion Institute of Technology was not part of the development team but calls it “highly significant.” Speaking in a statement, he said the technology “…extends the capabilities of electrochemical systems from basically nonselective toward highly selective removal of key pollutants.”

The next challenge will be scaling the device up to treat higher quantities of water outside the lab. “As with many emerging water purification techniques,” Suss added, “it must still be tested under real-world conditions and for long periods to check durability."

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Mysterious 'Hypatia Stone' Is Like Nothing Else in Our Solar System
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In 1996, Egyptian geologist Aly Barakat discovered a tiny, one-ounce stone in the eastern Sahara. Ever since, scientists have been trying to figure out where exactly the mysterious pebble originated. As Popular Mechanics reports, it probably wasn't anywhere near Earth. A new study in Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta finds that the micro-compounds in the rock don't match anything we've ever found in our solar system.

Scientists have known for several years that the fragment, known as the Hypatia stone, was extraterrestrial in origin. But this new study finds that it's even weirder than we thought. Led by University of Johannesburg geologists, the research team performed mineral analyses on the microdiamond-studded rock that showed that it is made of matter that predates the existence of our Sun or any of the planets in the solar system. And, its chemical composition doesn't resemble anything we've found on Earth or in comets or meteorites we have studied.

Lead researcher Jan Kramers told Popular Mechanics that the rock was likely created in the early solar nebula, a giant cloud of homogenous interstellar dust from which the Sun and its planets formed. While some of the basic materials in the pebble are found on Earth—carbon, aluminum, iron, silicon—they exist in wildly different ratios than materials we've seen before. Researchers believe the rock's microscopic diamonds were created by the shock of the impact with Earth's atmosphere or crust.

"When Hypatia was first found to be extraterrestrial, it was a sensation, but these latest results are opening up even bigger questions about its origins," as study co-author Marco Andreoli said in a press release.

The study suggests the early solar nebula may not have been as homogenous as we thought. "If Hypatia itself is not presolar, [some of its chemical] features indicate that the solar nebula wasn't the same kind of dust everywhere—which starts tugging at the generally accepted view of the formation of our solar system," Kramer said.

The researchers plan to further probe the rock's origins, hopefully solving some of the puzzles this study has presented.

[h/t Popular Mechanics]

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Ocean Waves Are Powerful Enough to Toss Enormous Boulders Onto Land, Study Finds
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During the winter of 2013-2014, the UK and Ireland were buffeted by a number of unusually powerful storms, causing widespread floods, landslides, and coastal evacuations. But the impact of the storm season stretched far beyond its effect on urban areas, as a new study in Earth-Science Reviews details. As we spotted on Boing Boing, geoscientists from Williams College in Massachusetts found that the storms had an enormous influence on the remote, uninhabited coast of western Ireland—one that shows the sheer power of ocean waves in a whole new light.

The rugged terrain of Ireland’s western coast includes gigantic ocean boulders located just off a coastline protected by high, steep cliffs. These massive rocks can weigh hundreds of tons, but a strong-enough wave can dislodge them, hurling them out of the ocean entirely. In some cases, these boulders are now located more than 950 feet inland. Though previous research has hypothesized that it often takes tsunami-strength waves to move such heavy rocks onto land, this study finds that the severe storms of the 2013-2014 season were more than capable.

Studying boulder deposits in Ireland’s County Mayo and County Clare, the Williams College team recorded two massive boulders—one weighing around 680 tons and one weighing about 520 tons—moving significantly during that winter, shifting more than 11 and 13 feet, respectively. That may not sound like a significant distance at first glance, but for some perspective, consider that a blue whale weighs about 150 tons. The larger of these two boulders weighs more than four blue whales.

Smaller boulders (relatively speaking) traveled much farther. The biggest boulder movement they observed was more than 310 feet—for a boulder that weighed more than 44 tons.

These boulder deposits "represent the inland transfer of extraordinary wave energies," the researchers write. "[Because they] record the highest energy coastal processes, they are key elements in trying to model and forecast interactions between waves and coasts." Those models are becoming more important as climate change increases the frequency and severity of storms.

[h/t Boing Boing]

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