Newly Discovered Dinosaur Named After Monster From 'Ghostbusters'

Columbia Pictures // Ghostbusters Wikia
Columbia Pictures // Ghostbusters Wikia

The last time a newly discovered species of club-tailed dinosaur wandered the Earth was 75 million years ago. But when researchers at Canada’s Royal Ontario Museum saw the fossil, their minds went to 1980s science fiction. As the Los Angeles Times reports, Zuul crurivastator is named after the ferocious demigod from Ghostbusters (1984).

Z. crurivastator shares a few characteristics with the movie villain, as the researchers lay out in their new study published in the journal Royal Society Open Science. It has four legs, a snub nose, and horns that flare from its crown and face. The second half of its name means "destroyer of shins," a nod to the bony weapon it carried on the end of its tail. Z. crurivastator has this characteristic in common with the rest of the Ankylosaurus genus.

Unlike Zuul, this dinosaur didn’t hang out inside refrigerators and on top of skyscrapers. The 5500-pound herbivore spent its days grazing the landscape and clubbing predators in what is today the badlands of northern Montana. A fossil-hunting company came across its remains while excavating another dinosaur in 2014. After hitting its tail with a bulldozer, they dug further and discovered an intact skull. The specimen is the most complete North American Ankylosaurus fossil on record.

After the bones were turned over to the Royal Ontario Museum, scientists made another exciting discovery: Portions of the soft tissue had been preserved for millions of years, possibly due to the sediment that surrounded it. Paleontologists plan to test the scales and sheath around its spiky armor for molecular traces of keratin. The analysis could lead to revelations about the color and makeup of dinosaur skin.

[h/t Los Angeles Times]

Scientists Find Fossil of 150-Million-Year-Old Flesh-Eating Fish—Plus a Few of Its Prey

M. Ebert and T. Nohl
M. Ebert and T. Nohl

A fossil of an unusual piranha-like fish from the Late Jurassic period has been unearthed by scientists in southern Germany, Australian news outlet the ABC reports. Even more remarkable than the fossil’s age—150 million years old—is the fact that the limestone deposit also contains some of the fish’s victims.

Fish with chunks missing from their fins were found near the predator fish, which has been named Piranhamesodon pinnatomus. Aside from the predator’s razor-sharp teeth, though, it doesn’t look like your usual flesh-eating fish. It belonged to an extinct order of bony fish that lived at the time of the dinosaurs, and until now, scientists didn’t realize there was a species of bony fish that tore into its prey in such a way. This makes it the first flesh-eating bony fish on record, long predating the piranha. 

“Fish as we know them, bony fishes, just did not bite flesh of other fishes at that time,” Dr. Martina Kölbl-Ebert, the paleontologist who found the fish with her husband, Martin Ebert, said in a statement. “Sharks have been able to bite out chunks of flesh, but throughout history bony fishes have either fed on invertebrates or largely swallowed their prey whole. Biting chunks of flesh or fins was something that came much later."

Kölbl-Ebert, the director of the Jura Museum in Eichstätt, Germany, says she was stunned to see the bony fish’s sharp teeth, comparing it to “finding a sheep with a snarl like a wolf.” This cunning disguise made the fish a fearful predator, and scientists believe the fish may have “exploited aggressive mimicry” to ambush unsuspecting fish.

The fossil was discovered in 2016 in southern Germany, but the find has only recently been described in the journal Current Biology. It was found at a quarry where other fossils, like those of the Archaeopteryx dinosaur, have been unearthed in the past.

[h/t the ABC]

After 20 Years, the Largest Dinosaur Foot Ever Discovered Has Been Identified

In 1998, paleontologists unearthed a fossil in Wyoming that experts agree is still the largest dinosaur foot ever discovered. Comprising 13 bones, the nearly complete fossil is 3 feet wide. And researchers say they've finally figured out who it belonged to.

As Gizmodo reports, the massive foot was likely that of a brachiosaur that roamed the Black Hills mountain range 150 million years ago. Brachiosaurs were sauropods that used their long necks to reach vegetation growing up to 40 feet off the ground. They could grow 80 feet long and weigh 88 tons.

The process of identifying the foot, which researchers explain in the journal PeerJ, took so long only because paleontologists in the West are digging up more fossils than they have time to study. When they finally got around to examining the foot bones, they made CGI models of them with a 3D scanner and compared them to other known examples of sauropod feet.

Though they're confident the foot comes from a brachiosaur—any member of the genus Brachiosaurus—scientists haven't been able to link it to one specific species.

This may be the biggest foot fossil ever found, but that doesn't necessarily make this species of brachiosaur the dinosaur with the largest shoe size. Foot fossils are rare: Because they're smaller and they're extremities, feet are more likely to be washed away or picked off by scavengers than other parts of the body. So while titanosaur and argentinosaurus, the largest known dinosaurs, almost certainly had more colossal feet than this brachiosaur, their actual foot fossils have yet to be discovered.

[h/t Gizmodo]

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