Why Do Presidents Get Libraries?

Opening a presidential library is now a rite of passage for those who held our nation’s highest office. On Wednesday May 3, the Obama Administration released the first concept designs depicting the Obama Presidential Center, which is planned for Chicago’s South Side.

As Condé Nast Traveler reports, the library will hold more than just books. The design, envisioned by husband-and-wife architects Tod Williams and Billie Tsien, includes classrooms, an auditorium, a restaurant, a museum, and a public garden. Like the presidential libraries that came before it, it will also be used to archive records from Barack Obama’s presidency.

Obama will become one of 14 former presidents with libraries managed by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). In 1955, Congress passed the Presidential Libraries Act that laid the groundwork for former presidents to donate any “papers, documents, or other historical materials” of theirs to be held in a “presidential archival repository.”

The act gained added significance after Nixon’s Watergate scandal highlighted the importance of transparency between the president and the people. That incident led to the Presidential Records Act of 1978, which states that most presidential documents must be made public within five years of the president leaving office. Today those documents are largely held in presidential libraries, where anyone can access them.

Before Herbert Hoover established the first official presidential library in 1962, there were others with the same idea. The presidential library technically originated with Rutherford B. Hayes, when his son opened one to hold his records in 1912. Abraham Lincoln and Woodrow Wilson also have presidential libraries that aren’t recognized by the 1955 law.

Former president Barack Obama’s library will be serve the public in more ways than one: Chicago Mayor Rahm Emanuel believes the project will stimulate the economies of the neighborhoods surrounding its location in Jackson Park. The campus will also be a place for community members to gather and learn. The Obama Center is scheduled to open in 2021.

[h/t Condé Nast Traveler]

Why Are There 10 Hot Dogs to a Pack But Only 8 Buns?

tacar/iStock via Getty Images
tacar/iStock via Getty Images

Watching competitive eating champion Joey Chestnut cram dozens of hot dogs down his throat would make anyone crave a grilled log of processed meat this summer. But shopping for hot dogs can be a confusing experience. The dogs are typically sold in packs of 10, but the buns are sold in packs of eight. What's behind this strange dog and bun inequality?

According to the National Hot Dog and Sausage Council—yes, there is a National Hot Dog and Sausage Council—there’s a good reason for the discrepancy. For starters, distributors of hot dogs are almost always different from manufacturers of baked goods like rolls. The hot dogs are sold in packs of 10 because producers of meat (or meat-like) products selected that quantity when hot dogs started to sell at retail grocery stores in the 1940s. Oscar Mayer, which led the charge into direct-to-consumer hot dog packaging, sold hot dogs by the pound in accordance with how meat is typically priced. Having 10 dogs that weighed 1.6 ounces each seemed like the ideal distribution of weight.

Bakeries, meanwhile, have standards of their own. Buns and sandwich rolls are usually sold eight to a pack because the baking trays for the elongated buns are typically sized to fit that number. Two sets of four buns come off the tray, which is the reason why buns are often still attached to one another when you open a bag.

These standards were created independently of one another: Bakeries weren’t too preoccupied with hot dogs when they were settling on a four-roll tray standard, and hot dog manufacturers weren’t thinking about how difficult it would be for bakeries to break from their conveyor system to offer 10 buns to a pack.

It can be frustrating if you buy just one or two packages of each, but if you’re hosting a big enough party, the uneven number doesn’t matter. You just need to buy five packages of buns and four packages of hot dogs to have 40 matching pairs. No complicated calculations required.

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When Are the Dog Days of Summer?

Dorottya_Mathe/iStock via Getty Images
Dorottya_Mathe/iStock via Getty Images

The official “dog days” of summer begin on July 3 and end on August 11. So how did this time frame earn its canine nickname? It turns out the phrase has nothing to do with the poor pooches who are forever seeking shade in the July heat, and everything to do with the nighttime sky.

Sirius, the Dog Star, is the brightest star in the sky. The ancient Greeks noticed that in the summer months, Sirius rose and set with the Sun, and they theorized that it was the bright, glowing Dog Star that was adding extra heat to the Earth in July and August.

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