Grave Sightings: Charlie Parker

Stacy Conradt
Stacy Conradt

Legendary jazz musician Charlie “Bird” Parker was just 34 when he died of pneumonia in 1955, but he packed a lot of living into those few decades. In fact, his body was so ravaged from years of drug and alcohol addiction that the coroner who conducted his autopsy initially estimated Parker at 55 or 60 years old.

Black and white photo of jazz musician Charlie "Bird" Parker playing the saxophone.
Charlie Parker playing the saxophone at the Three Deuces jazz club in New York in 1947.

To add insult to injury, Parker’s final resting place in Kansas City, Missouri is about 1200 miles away from where he wanted to be buried, according to his common-law wife, Chan Parker. She said Bird wanted to be buried in Long Island next to his daughter, who had died from a heart condition at the age of 2. Parker’s mother, however, wanted him home in Missouri. Ultimately, a committee of Parker’s friends claimed his body at the funeral home and sent it home to his mother. Addie Parker had her son interred at Lincoln Cemetery on the outskirts of town and was buried next to him when she died in 1967.

Gravestone of jazz musician Charlie Parker and his mother, Addie Parker, including birth dates, death dates, and an engraving of a bird and a saxophone.
Stacy Conradt

But Bird's afterlife problems don’t end there. His name was misspelled as "Charley" Parker in his Kansas City obituary. And the marker that designates his final resting place has been plagued with problems since the day it was installed. The original headstone listed the wrong death date—March 23 instead of March 12—and though the egregious engraving error was eventually fixed, the whole thing was later stolen in 1992. It took two years to get a replacement, and when it arrived, there was a new mistake: The engraving above the name is a tenor saxophone. Parker played the alto.

In 1998, there was some talk of having Parker moved from the out-of-the-way, difficult-to-find cemetery. Fans, including then-mayor of Kansas City Emanuel Cleaver, had a more fitting resting place in mind: 18th and Vine, a historic jazz location in Kansas City proper where the American Jazz Museum now stands. Cleaver even requested $25,000 from the City Council to help move the city’s famous son. “It will be much more than a grave,” he said. “It will be a shrine. It will take up about half a block behind the museum. I believe having Charlie Parker’s grave near the museum is almost as important as having the home base near the playing field.”

Unfortunately for Cleaver, the request was denied, and to this day, Parker remains in Lincoln Cemetery. Even so, the obscure spot gets pretty lively every year on Parker’s birthday when the local jazz community shows up to serenade him with a New Orleans-style “21 Sax Salute.”

The Time Baby Ruth Sued Babe Ruth

Allsport/Hulton Archive/Getty Images
Allsport/Hulton Archive/Getty Images

In 1920, the Curtiss Candy Company introduced the Baby Ruth candy bar, causing a certain baseball player with a very similar name to take notice. Babe Ruth was having a monstrous year—his 54 home runs in the 1920 season were more than any other team in the American League. If you were going to misappropriate someone’s name for a candy bar, Ruth’s was a logical choice.

Sensing opportunity, the Great Bambino struck back by creating his own Babe Ruth Home Run Bar. Curtiss quickly sued Ruth’s company for trademark infringement. But what happened next was surprising: When the Sultan of Swat accused the company of using his name, Curtiss feigned shock. Its bar was named after “Baby” Ruth Cleveland, daughter of President Grover Cleveland.

For years, this has been the oft-repeated explanation, but the argument makes no sense. Cleveland had been out of office for more than two decades and dead for 12 years when the bar debuted. “Baby” Ruth herself had died of diphtheria in 1904, at just 12 years old. Although the country’s most famous baseball star would seem much more likely to have a namesake candy than a former president's departed child, the courts sided with Curtiss.

When Ruth learned of the verdict, he bellowed, “Well, I ain’t eatin’ your damned candy bar anymore!” Somehow, the Baby Ruth bar survived without his support.

What Is the Wilhelm Scream?

iStock
iStock

What do Star Wars, The Lord of the Rings, Pirates of the Caribbean, Harold and Kumar Go to White Castle, Toy Story, Reservoir Dogs, Titanic, Anchorman, 22 Jump Street, and more than 200 other films and TV shows have in common? Not much besides the one and only Wilhelm Scream.

The Wilhelm Scream is the holy grail of movie geek sound effects—a throwaway sound bite with inauspicious beginnings that was turned into the best movie in-joke ever when it was revived in the 1970s.

Just what is it? Chances are you’ve heard it before but never really noticed it. The Wilhelm Scream is a stock sound effect that has been used in both the biggest blockbusters and the lowest low-budget movies and television shows for over 60 years, and is usually heard when someone onscreen is shot or falls from a great height.

First used in the 1951 Gary Cooper western Distant Drums, the distinctive yelp began in a scene in which a group of soldiers wade through a swamp, and one of them lets out a piercing scream as an alligator drags him underwater.

As is the case with many movie sound effects, the scream was recorded later in a sound booth with the simple direction to make it sound like “a man getting bit by an alligator, and he screams.” Six screams were performed in one take, and the fifth scream on the recording became the iconic Wilhelm (the others were used for additional screams in other parts of the movie).

Following its debut in 1951, the effect became a regular part of the Warner Bros. sound library and was continually used by the studio’s filmmakers in their movies. Eventually, in the early 1970s, a group of budding sound designers at USC’s film school—including future Academy Award-winning sound designer Ben Burtt—recognized that the unique scream kept popping up in numerous films they were watching. They nicknamed it the “Wilhelm Scream” after a character in the first movie they all recognized it from, a 1963 western called The Charge at Feather River, in which a character named Private Wilhelm lets out the pained scream after being shot in the leg by an arrow.

As a joke, the students began slipping the effect into the student films they were working on at the time. After he graduated, Burtt was tapped by fellow USC alum George Lucas to do the sound design on a little film he was making called Star Wars. As a nod to his friends, Burtt put the original sound effect from the Warner Bros. library into the movie, most noticeably when a Stormtrooper is shot by Luke Skywalker and falls into a chasm on the Death Star. Burtt would go on to use the Wilhelm Scream in various scenes in every Star Wars and Indiana Jones movie, causing fans and filmmakers to take notice.

Directors like Peter Jackson and Quentin Tarantino, as well as countless other sound designers, sought out the sound and put it in their movies as a humorous nod to Burtt. They wanted to be in on the joke too, and the Wilhelm Scream began showing up everywhere, making it an unofficial badge of honor. It's become bigger than just a sound effect, and the name “Wilhelm Scream” has been used for everything from a band name, to a beer, to a song title, and more.

But whose voice does the scream itself belong to? Burtt himself did copious amounts of research, as the identity of the screamer was unknown for decades. He eventually found a Warner Bros. call sheet from Distant Drums that listed actors who were scheduled to record additional dialogue after the film was completed. One of the names, and the most likely candidate as the Wilhelm screamer, was an actor and musician named Sheb Wooley, who appeared in classics like High Noon, Giant, and the TV show Rawhide. You may also know him as the musician who sang the popular 1958 novelty song “Purple People Eater.”

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