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All Mammals Take the Same Amount of Time to Poop, Scientists Find

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Yes, everyone poops. Moreover, at least when it comes to mammals, everyone poops for about the same amount of time, according to a new study. The research, described in the journal Soft Matter and brought to our attention by the Science of Us, examined mammals as small as cats and as large as elephants, finding that they all took around 12 seconds to defecate.

The study examined elephants, giant pandas, and warthogs at the Zoo Atlanta, dogs at a park, the dimensions of feces and large intestines, and mathematical models to better understand how animals poop. The Georgia Institute of Technology researchers found that regardless of the animal’s total size, the mammals studied had feces that were double the length of their rectum, and whether that rectum was an inch-and-a-half long or almost 16 inches long, their feces took about 12 seconds to exit the body.

The researchers only studied animals with cylindrical feces (excluding rabbits, rodents, and ruminants like cows in the process), collecting stool samples from 34 zoo animals, seven farm animals, and two species of animals (unidentified) living at Georgia Tech. They also observed animals pooping at Zoo Atlanta firsthand and watched 19 different YouTube videos that featured animals doing their business.

Through their observations and theoretical calculations on the fluid mechanics of defecation, the researchers found that all animals exert the same amount of pressure while pooping. They also found that bigger animals had more poop to get rid of, but they also had thicker mucus layers lining the walls of their large intestine, which helps move the poop out of the body at a faster clip. Combine these two factors, and you get pretty consistent poop durations across the animal kingdom—12 seconds—despite the wide range of body sizes. (Constipation happens when the feces moving through the large intestine soak up that mucus layer. Think of it like trying to go down a waterslide that is completely dry.)

This study did not examine every animal on Earth, but the finding is in line with research on the other potty habits of mammals. Previous work—awarded an Ig Nobel Prize in 2015—found that all mammals pee for about the same amount of time (21 seconds). It’s evolutionarily plausible, too. Pooping makes it hard to run away from predators (a significant number of sloths die when they leave the treetops to poop at ground level, in fact) and a quick heave-ho of the bowels is safer than straining in one location for 20 minutes.

The researchers hope their study will be used for more than just satisfying the curiosity of colon obsessives, though. “By understanding the physics of defecation, we will provide not only new ideas for medical diagnostics, diapers, and incontinence products but also transport methods for the feces of humans, pets, and agriculturally important animals,” they write.

[h/t Science of Us]

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'Lime Disease' Could Give You a Nasty Rash This Summer
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A cold Corona or virgin margarita is best enjoyed by the pool, but watch where you’re squeezing those limes. As Slate illustrates in a new video, there’s a lesser-known “lime disease,” and it can give you a nasty skin rash if you’re not careful.

When lime juice comes into contact with your skin and is then exposed to UV rays, it can cause a chemical reaction that results in phytophotodermatitis. It looks a little like a poison ivy reaction or sun poisoning, and some of the symptoms include redness, blistering, and inflammation. It’s the same reaction caused by a corrosive sap on the giant hogweed, an invasive weed that’s spreading throughout the U.S.

"Lime disease" may sound random, but it’s a lot more common than you might think. Dermatologist Barry D. Goldman tells Slate he sees cases of the skin condition almost daily in the summer. Some people have even reported receiving second-degree burns as a result of the citric acid from lime juice. According to the Mayo Clinic, the chemical that causes phytophotodermatitis can also be found in wild parsnip, wild dill, wild parsley, buttercups, and other citrus fruits.

To play it safe, keep your limes confined to the great indoors or wash your hands with soap after handling the fruit. You can learn more about phytophotodermatitis by checking out Slate’s video below.

[h/t Slate]

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Why Eating From a Smaller Plate Might Not Be an Effective Dieting Trick 
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It might be time to rewrite the diet books. Israeli psychologists have cast doubt on the widespread belief that eating from smaller plates helps you control food portions and feel fuller, Scientific American reports.

Past studies have shown that this mind trick, called the Delboeuf illusion, influences the amount of food that people eat. In one 2012 study, participants who were given larger bowls ended up eating more soup overall than those given smaller bowls.

However, researchers from Ben-Gurion University in Negev, Israel, concluded in a study published in the journal Appetite that the effectiveness of the illusion depends on how empty your stomach is. The team of scientists studied two groups of participants: one that ate three hours before the experiment, and another that ate one hour prior. When participants were shown images of pizzas on serving trays of varying sizes, the group that hadn’t eaten in several hours was more accurate in assessing the size of pizzas. In other words, the hungrier they were, the less likely they were to be fooled by the different trays.

However, both groups were equally tricked by the illusion when they were asked to estimate the size of non-food objects, such as black circles inside of white circles and hubcaps within tires. Researchers say this demonstrates that motivational factors, like appetite, affects how we perceive food. The findings also dovetail with the results of an earlier study, which concluded that overweight people are less likely to fall for the illusion than people of a normal weight.

So go ahead and get a large plate every now and then. At the very least, it may save you a second trip to the buffet table.

[h/t Scientific American]

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