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8 Medical Inventions Created by Nurses

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Nurses check our pulses, draw our blood, and care for us when we’re sick. But beyond all that, they also create equipment that saves lives and makes living more pleasant.

Over time, nurses have assumed more responsibility for patient care. A 2011 article published in the New England Journal of Medicine pointed out that a number of studies show that primary care services can be administered as safely and effectively by nurse practitioners as by doctors. And having both nurses and doctors in a practice increases patient satisfaction and boosts revenue.

Nurses’ roles also allow them to see medical practices and procedures in a different way, resulting in some revolutionary inventions. Without nurses, we wouldn’t have a number of tools regularly used today in both hospitals and homes.

1. THE CRASH CART

If your heart stops, the defibrillator and resuscitation equipment in a crash cart could save your life. The wheeled set of drawers stocked with equipment, originally called the crisis cart, was invented by registered nurse Anita Dorr in 1968, after years of watching precious time slip away as doctors and nurses procured the proper tools. She created the prototype in her basement, organizing the cart with items needed for the head in the top drawers for easy access. Her crash cart is now used all over the world. Dorr didn’t stop creating there; she also co-founded the Emergency Nurses Association.

2. COLOR-CODED IV LINES

IV lines were made of clear plastic until nurse Teri Barton-Salinas and her sister, Gail Barton-Hay, decided to patent their color-coded lines in 2003 to help reduce medical errors. Barton-Salinas got the idea when she was working as a labor delivery nurse and had to use the lines in newborns. During an emergency, a nurse has only seconds to identify the correct equipment, making easy identification key. “A medication error is every nurse’s nightmare,” Barton-Salinas told the Daily Republic in 2010. “The patient suffers, the family suffers, and the nurse suffers.”

3. NEONATAL PHOTOTHERAPY

Sunlight helps babies with jaundice, a condition that makes infants appear yellow due to high bilirubin levels in their blood. Many babies have high bilirubin levels, which occur when the body creates new red blood cells. Usually the liver helps break bilirubin down, but many babies’ livers don’t work very efficiently at first.

In the 1950s, Sister Jean Ward discovered that sunlight helped her charges. Convinced that fresh air and warm sunlight helped the babies she cared for as a nurse in the premature unit at Rochford General Hospital in Essex, England, Ward would bring the babies outdoors. When she brought one child inside one day, a doctor noticed one section of skin that had been covered by the corner of a blanket was yellower than the rest of the baby’s body. Now medical professionals use phototherapy to treat jaundiced babies.

4. BILI-BONNET

When those babies went through treatment for jaundice, nurses and doctors would have to fashion glasses out of whatever materials they had available, sometimes using construction paper and cotton balls to cover a preemie’s eyes while the bright lights shined above. In the 1990s, Sharon Rogone, who had worked as a nurse in hospital neonatal intensive care units in San Bernardino, California, created glasses especially designed for the teeny patients. She held them in place with a little bonnet and called the whole thing the Bili-Bonnet. Rogone started her own company, Small Beginnings, and has since created other inventions for preemies.

5. BABY BOTTLES WITH DISPOSABLE LINERS

Watching how nursing on bottles exhausted babies, Adda May Allen, who worked as a nurse at Columbia Hospital in Washington, D.C. in the 1940s, created a disposable liner that moms and hospitals could throw away after just one use. While a baby sucked on a traditional bottle, a partial vacuum formed, inverting the nipple. A plastic liner, however, allowed the sides to close in as a baby drank her milk. "Say, this is a damn sight more important than some of the scientific papers," a doctor told a Time magazine reporter soon after the liner hit the market.

6. A FEEDING TUBE FOR PARALYZED VETERANS

Veterans paralyzed during WWII couldn’t feed themselves until Bessie Blount Griffin, an African-American nurse, invented a tube in the 1940s they could use with their teeth. Patients could bite down on the tube and receive a mouthful of liquefied food, giving them a bit of independence. Griffin was so good at rehabilitation that she earned the name “Wonder Woman.” Invention wasn’t her only profession; she later went into forensic science and was the first African-American woman to work at Scotland Yard.

7. OSTOMY BAG

Elise Sorensen’s little sister, Thora, had colon cancer. After surgery, Thora faced life with an ostomy appliance for her waste, which often smelled bad and leaked with the equipment available. Elise, a visiting Danish nurse, created a solution for her sister in 1954: a plastic pouch that she could adhere to her body. The invention has helped those who’ve had ostomy surgery live normal lives ever since.

8. SANITARY PADS

On the battlefield during WWI, doctors and nurses used a material called cellucotton to treat soldiers’ wounds. The product was five times as absorbent as cotton, which was in short supply. The field nurses also used it unofficially as a sanitary pad, and within a few years of the war’s end, the idea was popularized in the disposable commercial product, Kotex.

So during National Nurses Week, coming up on May 6, be sure to thank nurses for not only what they do, but what they’ve done for the medical field, too.

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Trying to Save Money? Avoid Shopping on a Smartphone
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Today, Americans do most of their shopping online—but as anyone who’s indulged in late-night retail therapy likely knows, this convenience often can come with an added cost. Trying to curb expenses, but don't want to swear off the convenience of ordering groceries in your PJs? New research shows that shopping on a desktop computer instead of a mobile phone may help you avoid making foolish purchases, according to Co. Design.

Ying Zhu, a marketing professor at the University of British Columbia-Okanagan, recently led a study to measure how touchscreen technology affects consumer behavior. Published in the Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, her research found that people are more likely to make more frivolous, impulsive purchases if they’re shopping on their phones than if they’re facing a computer monitor.

Zhu, along with study co-author Jeffrey Meyer of Bowling Green State University, ran a series of lab experiments on student participants to observe how different electronic devices affected shoppers’ thinking styles and intentions. Their aim was to see if subjects' purchasing goals changed when it came to buying frivolous things, like chocolate or massages, or more practical things, like food or office supplies.

In one experiment, participants were randomly assigned to use a desktop or a touchscreen. Then, they were presented with an offer to purchase either a frivolous item (a $50 restaurant certificate for $30) or a useful one (a $50 grocery certificate for $30). These subjects used a three-point scale to gauge how likely they were to purchase the offer, and they also evaluated how practical or frivolous each item was. (Participants rated the restaurant certificate to be more indulgent than the grocery certificate.)

Sure enough, the researchers found that participants had "significantly higher" purchase intentions for hedonic (i.e. pleasurable) products when buying on touchscreens than on desktops, according to the study. On the flip side, participants had significantly higher purchase intentions for utilitarian (i.e. practical) products while using desktops instead of touchscreens.

"The playful and fun nature of the touchscreen enhances consumers' favor of hedonic products; while the logical and functional nature of a desktop endorses the consumers' preference for utilitarian products," Zhu explains in a press release.

The study also found that participants using touchscreen technology scored significantly higher on "experiential thinking" than subjects using desktop computers, whereas those with desktop computers demonstrated higher scores for rational thinking.

“When you’re in an experiential thinking mode, [you crave] excitement, a different experience,” Zhu explained to Co. Design. “When you’re on the desktop, with all the work emails, that interface puts you into a rational thinking style. While you’re in a rational thinking style, when you assess a product, you’ll look for something with functionality and specific uses.”

Zhu’s advice for consumers looking to conserve cash? Stow away the smartphone when you’re itching to splurge on a guilty pleasure.

[h/t Fast Company]

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Animals
Elusive Butterfly Sighted in Scotland for the First Time in 133 Years

Conditions weren’t looking too promising for the white-letter hairstreak, an elusive butterfly that’s native to the UK. Threatened by habitat loss, the butterfly's numbers have dwindled by 96 percent since the 1970s, and the insect hasn’t even been spotted in Scotland since 1884. So you can imagine the surprise lepidopterists felt when a white-letter hairstreak was seen feeding in a field in Berwickshire, Scotland earlier in August, according to The Guardian.

A man named Iain Cowe noticed the butterfly and managed to capture it on camera. “It is not every day that something as special as this is found when out and about on a regular butterfly foray,” Cowe said in a statement provided by the UK's Butterfly Conservation. “It was a very ragged and worn individual found feeding on ragwort in the grassy edge of an arable field.”

The white-letter hairstreak is a small brown butterfly with a white “W”-shaped streak on the underside of its wings and a small orange spot on its hindwings. It’s not easily sighted, as it tends to spend most of its life feeding and breeding in treetops.

The butterfly’s preferred habitat is the elm tree, but an outbreak of Dutch elm disease—first noted the 1970s—forced the white-letter hairstreak to find new homes and food sources as millions of Britain's elm trees died. The threatened species has slowly spread north, and experts are now hopeful that Scotland could be a good home for the insect. (Dutch elm disease does exist in Scotland, but the nation also has a good amount of disease-resistant Wych elms.)

If a breeding colony is confirmed, the white-letter hairstreak will bump Scotland’s number of butterfly species that live and breed in the country up to 34. “We don’t have many butterfly species in Scotland so one more is very nice to have,” Paul Kirkland, director of Butterfly Conservation Scotland, said in a statement.

Prior to 1884, the only confirmed sighting of a white-letter hairstreak in Scotland was in 1859. However, the insect’s newfound presence in Scotland comes at a cost: The UK’s butterflies are moving north due to climate change, and the white-letter hairstreak’s arrival is “almost certainly due to the warming climate,” Kirkland said.

[h/t The Guardian]

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