CLOSE
Original image
Getty Images

Can You Fire the Pope?

Original image
Getty Images

In the last few weeks we’ve learned all about the ins and outs of papal resignation, and the Catholic Church’s process for choosing a new pope. But what about firing the guy? Reader Gabrielle wrote in to ask: “Can a pope be ousted? And has it happened before?”

While you do have to wear the funny hat, being pope has its benefits. There’s the popemobile, the fancy throne, and pretty good job security. The pope can’t be fired like any old schlep down at the widget factory. The Code of Canon Law, the collected laws and regulations of the Church, doesn’t provide any avenues for, or even hint at the possibility of, removing a pope from power.

Which kind of makes sense. The position was, after all, created by Jesus (“And I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church; and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it.”), a guy who the Church takes pretty seriously. Plus, there’s no separation of powers in the Church, and the pope doesn’t have a boss—at least, according to the Catholics, not an earthly one. The Code of Canon Law says that “by virtue of his office he [the pope] possesses supreme, full, immediate and universally ordinary power in the Church, which he is always able to exercise freely.” The College of Cardinals elects new popes, but they don’t have hiring and firing powers. The Catechism of the Catholic Church states that the “body of bishops has no authority unless united with the Roman Pontiff, Peter's successor, as its head” and that their “power cannot be exercised without the agreement of the Roman Pontiff.” So, unless the pope agrees that he has to go, it seems that the cardinals' hands are tied. 

While you can’t fire the pope from his job, there have been a handful of pontiffs throughout history that have been removed by means that cross regular papal succession with Game of Thrones and The Sopranos. Otto the Great, one of the Holy Roman Emperors, deposed both John XII and Benedict V after using his army to blockade Rome. Benedict VI, installed by Otto, was deposed by Crescentius the Elder and other Roman politicians who were tired of the Empire interfering in papal elections; Crescentius was later murdered in prison. After papal candidates Benedict IX, Sylvester III, and Gregory VI all attempted to claim the office at the same time, German King Henry III intervened, formed the Council of Sutri, and deposed or encouraged all three of them to resign. Centuries later, the Council of Constance also ended a power struggle between multiple popes, known as the Western Schism, by deposing or urging resignation from the various claimants. Still other popes were removed by competing claimants, or died in office under mysterious circumstances and suspected foul play. 

Original image
iStock
arrow
Big Questions
What Is the Difference Between Generic and Name Brand Ibuprofen?
Original image
iStock

What is the difference between generic ibuprofen vs. name brands?

Yali Friedman:

I just published a paper that answers this question: Are Generic Drugs Less Safe than their Branded Equivalents?

Here’s the tl;dr version:

Generic drugs are versions of drugs made by companies other than the company which originally developed the drug.

To gain FDA approval, a generic drug must:

  • Contain the same active ingredients as the innovator drug (inactive ingredients may vary)
  • Be identical in strength, dosage form, and route of administration
  • Have the same use indications
  • Be bioequivalent
  • Meet the same batch requirements for identity, strength, purity, and quality
  • Be manufactured under the same strict standards of FDA's good manufacturing practice regulations required for innovator products

I hope you found this answer useful. Feel free to reach out at www.thinkbiotech.com. For more on generic drugs, you can see our resources and whitepapers at Pharmaceutical strategic guidance and whitepapers

This post originally appeared on Quora. Click here to view.

Original image
iStock
arrow
Big Questions
Do Cats Fart?
Original image
iStock

Certain philosophical questions can invade even the most disciplined of minds. Do aliens exist? Can a soul ever be measured? Do cats fart?

While the latter may not have weighed heavily on some of history’s great brains, it’s certainly no less deserving of an answer. And in contrast to existential queries, there’s a pretty definitive response: Yes, they do. We just don’t really hear it.

According to veterinarians who have realized their job sometimes involves answering inane questions about animals passing gas, cats have all the biological hardware necessary for a fart: a gastrointestinal system and an anus. When excess air builds up as a result of gulping breaths or gut bacteria, a pungent cloud will be released from their rear ends. Smell a kitten’s butt sometime and you’ll walk away convinced that cats fart.

The discretion, or lack of audible farts, is probably due to the fact that cats don’t gulp their food like dogs do, leading to less air accumulating in their digestive tract.

So, yes, cats do fart. But they do it with the same grace and stealth they use to approach everything else. Think about that the next time you blame the dog.

Have you got a Big Question you'd like us to answer? If so, let us know by emailing us at bigquestions@mentalfloss.com.

SECTIONS

arrow
LIVE SMARTER
More from mental floss studios