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The Challenges of Building the Hubble Telescope’s Replacement

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Since 1990, the Hubble telescope has brought us photos that are as beautiful as they are scientifically important. But there’s a limit to what Hubble can see—so space agencies from around the world are collaborating to create a better, more powerful, and literally bigger telescope: the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), which is projected to launch in 2018. In the SXSW panel “Beyond Hubble: Building NASA’s Next Great Telescope,” scientists and engineers discussed what the Webb telescope will look for and all the engineering challenges that go into actually building the instrument.

What JWST Will Do—And How It Will Do It

According to Alberto Conti, Innovation Scientist at the Space Telescope Science Institute, the Webb telescope is a versatile instrument that has four main goals: To find the first stars, study galaxy evolution, study planet formation, and find habitable planets that might contain water (and, therefore, might also have life). “We build telescopes because they’re time machines,” Conti says. “They tell us about how the universe came to be, and how it works.” Scientists hope that Webb will answer questions like: How did the universe form? Is our solar system unique? Are we alone?

In order to answer these questions, JWST needs to be big—really big. One hundred times more powerful than Hubble, the four-story-tall, infrared optimized telescope will be comprised of 18 hexagonal mirrors that total 21.3 feet in diameter which will allow it to take pictures of faraway worlds, and an 80-foot-long sun shield that will keep the telescope’s eyes cold enough to snap those photos.

While Hubble can capture images of planets the size of Jupiter, JWST will be able to look for planets from the size of Neptune down to the size of Earth, according to Charles Mountain, the director of the Space Science Telescope Institute. And it will do it by looking for infrared spectrums. “On the infrared spectrum, there are three planets that we know a lot about: Venus, Mars, and Earth,” Mountain says. If, using JWST, they can find planets with infrared signatures similar to Earth’s, they might be goldilocks planets—just right to have life. “If we find life, it’ll be as profound as Darwin and Copernicus rolled into one,” Mountain says. “It will bring about a change in our world—we’ll realize we’re not as special that we thought, that evolution happened elsewhere.”

Looking for life begins by looking for stars, because planets that can harbor life will be orbiting around stars. JWST can also use infrared to peer through clouds of gas. “The idea is that we can see thousands of stars embedded in gas clouds because we have the right set of eyes,” Conti says. By looking at the spectra of the disks, Webb will be able to determine what constituents of those disks create planetary systems.

The Engineering Challenges

Building JWST hasn’t been a cakewalk. It has required both creativity and tons of collaboration between scientists, engineers, and companies in the private sector to get it done. Here are the engineering challenges behind key elements of the telescope.

Mirror

In order to see distant objects, JWST needs a big mirror. Blake Marie Bullock, the campaign lead on JWST at Northrup Grumman Corporation, explains the need for a big mirror this way: If you leave a coffee can out overnight in a storm, in the morning, the water in the can will be two inches deep. If you leave out a kiddie pool in the same scenario, the pool will also have water two inches deep—but there will be a lot more water in it. In a telescope, “the same thing is happening with photons,” Bullock says. “If you have a bigger bucket, you can have more photons, and see fainter objects.”

This mirror is so big that it won’t fit in a traditional rocket (Webb will go up in one of the European Space Agency’s Ariane 5 rockets), so engineers had to create a mirror that will fold. “There are 18 hexagons, but three of the hexagons [on each side] are folded down like leaves on a dining room table when it’s stowed,” Bullock says. Once in space, the telescope “unfolds like a flower. Figuring out how this process works takes a lot of engineering.”

Even more complicated is figuring out the prescription. “As you’re manufacturing that mirror on the surface of the Earth, gravity pulls it down and bends that structure,” Bullock says. But when the mirrors are up in space, the gravity is gone—so on Earth, the prescription actually has to be perfectly wrong so that it will be right once the telescope goes into space. As you can imagine, it takes a lot of calculations.

In order to be as precise as the mission requires, JWST’s mirrors have to be very, very smooth. So smooth, Bullock says, that “if you took one of these hexagons and stretched it out to the size of the state of Texas, the biggest bump would be 1 centimeter tall.”

Hot vs. Cold

Infrared is sort of like heat, Bullock says, and because JWST is looking for heat, it doesn’t want to see heat. So engineers are building a five-layer, 80-foot long sun shield that will take photons away from the telescope’s eyes, which much be cold to function. And because there’s such a huge difference in temperature between the hot side of the observatory, where temperatures will reach 185 degrees Fahrenheit, and the cold side, which will be a chilly -388 degrees Fahrenheit, engineers have to think about things like how glue and other materials might behave. Engineers also have to wrestle with how to handle things like the sun shield so that it doesn’t have any creases once it’s deployed.

Weight

The bigger something is, the heavier it is—and the more difficult it is to get it out of Earth’s orbit. JWST is no exception. “As the telescopes get bigger, engineers have to think about how to make it light enough to get into space,” Bullock says. Hubble is just a couple of hundred miles above Earth’s surface, but Webb will be a million miles away, where it is both dark—to make imaging planets and stars easier—and cold (so the telescope functions properly).

Testing

No facility is big enough to test Webb in its entirety, so its components are being tested at Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. The facility’s cryogenic chamber, according to Bullock, hasn’t been used since the Apollo missions, so it’s been retrofitted to test JWST’s components. The gold-coated mirrors are being tested six at a time, but the chamber isn’t big enough for the 80-foot sun shield. “That means a lot more math to make sure everything will work the first time,” Bullock says.

Given all of these challenges, how can scientists be sure JWST will work? Nothing is 100 percent, but engineers are working hard to make it happen. “Every piece is tested incrementally, verified, put into a larger system and tested again,” Bullock says. “We’ll spend two years testing it to make sure that it works.”

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Look Up! Residents of Maine and Michigan Might Catch a Glimpse of the Northern Lights Tonight
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iStock

The aurora borealis, a celestial show usually reserved for spectators near the arctic circle, could potentially appear over parts of the continental U.S. on the night of February 15. As Newsweek reports, a solar storm is on track to illuminate the skies above Maine and Michigan.

The Northern Lights (and the Southern Lights) are caused by electrons from the sun colliding with gases in the Earth’s atmosphere. The solar particles transfer some of their energy to oxygen and nitrogen molecules on contact, and as these excited molecules settle back to their normal states they release light particles. The results are glowing waves of blue, green, purple, and pink light creating a spectacle for viewers on Earth.

The more solar particles pelt the atmosphere, the more vivid these lights become. Following a moderate solar flare that burst from the sun on Monday, the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center forecast a solar light show for tonight. While the Northern Lights are most visible from higher latitudes where the planet’s magnetic field is strongest, northern states are occasionally treated to a view. This is because the magnetic North Pole is closer to the U.S. than the geographic North Pole.

This Thursday night into Friday morning is expected to be one of those occasions. To catch a glimpse of the phenomena from your backyard, wait for the sun to go down and look toward the sky. People living in places with little cloud cover and light pollution will have the best chance of spotting it.

[h/t Newsweek]

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Kevin Gill, Flickr // CC BY-2.0
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10 Facts About the Dwarf Planet Haumea
Kevin Gill, Flickr // CC BY-2.0
Kevin Gill, Flickr // CC BY-2.0

In terms of sheer weirdness, few objects in the solar system can compete with the dwarf planet Haumea. It has a strange shape, unusual brightness, two moons, and a wild rotation. Its unique features, however, can tell astronomers a lot about the formation of the solar system and the chaotic early years that characterized it. Here are a few things you need to know about Haumea, the tiny world beyond Neptune.

1. THREE HAUMEAS COULD FIT SIDE BY SIDE IN EARTH.

Haumea is a trans-Neptunian object; its orbit, in other words, is beyond that of the farthest ice giant in the solar system. Its discovery was reported to the International Astronomical Union in 2005, and its status as a dwarf planet—the fifth, after Ceres, Eris, Makemake, and Pluto—was made official three years later. Dwarf planets have the mass of a planet and have achieved hydrostatic equilibrium (i.e., they're round), but have not "cleared their neighborhoods" (meaning their gravity is not dominant in their orbit). Haumea is notable for the large amount of water ice on its surface, and for its size: Only Pluto and Eris are larger in the trans-Neptunian region, and Pluto only slightly, with a 1475-mile diameter versus Haumea's 1442-mile diameter. That means three Haumeas could fit sit by side in Earth—and yet it only has 1/1400th of the mass of our planet.

2. HAUMEA'S DISCOVERY WAS CONTROVERSIAL.

There is some disagreement over who discovered Haumea. A team of astronomers at the Sierra Nevada Observatory in Spain first reported its discovery to the Minor Planet Center of the International Astronomical Union on July 27, 2005. A team led by Mike Brown from the Palomar Observatory in California had discovered the object earlier, but had not reported their results, waiting to develop the science and present it at a conference. They later discovered that their files had been accessed by the Spanish team the night before the announcement was made. The Spanish team says that, yes, they did run across those files, having found them in a Google search before making their report to the Minor Planet Center, but that it was happenstance—the result of due diligence to make sure the object had never been reported. In the end, the IAU gave credit for the discovery to the Spanish team—but used the name proposed by the Caltech team.

3. IT'S NAMED FOR A HAWAIIAN GODDESS.

In Hawaiian mythology, Haumea is the goddess of fertility and childbirth. The name was proposed by the astronomers at Caltech to honor the place where Haumea's moon was discovered: the Keck Observatory on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Its moons—Hi'iaka and Namaka—are named for two of Haumea's children.

4. HAUMEA HAS RINGS—AND THAT'S STRANGE.

Haumea is the farthest known object in the solar system to possess a ring system. This discovery was recently published in the journal Nature. But why does it have rings? And how? "It is not entirely clear to us yet," says lead author Jose-Luis Ortiz, a researcher at the Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia and leader of the Spanish team of astronomers who discovered Haumea.

5. HAUMEA'S SURFACE IS EXTREMELY BRIGHT.

In addition to being extremely fast, oddly shaped, and ringed, Haumea is very bright. This brightness is a result of the dwarf planet's composition. On the inside, it's rocky. On the outside, it is covered by a thin film of crystalline water ice [PDF]—the same kind of ice that's in your freezer. That gives Haumea a high albedo, or reflectiveness. It's about as bright as a snow-covered frozen lake on a sunny day.

6. HAUMEA HAS ONE OF THE SHORTEST DAYS IN THE ENTIRE SOLAR SYSTEM.

If you lived to be a year old on Haumea, you would be 284 years old back on Earth. And if you think a Haumean year is unusual, that's nothing next to the length of a Haumean day. It takes 3.9 hours for Haumea to make a full rotation, which means it has by far the fastest spin, and thus shortest day, of any object in the solar system larger than 62 miles.

7. HAUMEA'S HIGH SPEED SQUISHES IT INTO A SHAPE LIKE A RUGBY BALL.

haumea rotation gif
Stephanie Hoover, Wikipedia // Public Domain

As a result of this tornadic rotation, Haumea has an odd shape; its speed compresses it so much that rather than taking a spherical, soccer ball shape, it is flattened and elongated into looking something like a rugby ball.

8. HIGH-SPEED COLLISIONS MAY EXPLAIN HAUMEA'S TWO MOONS.

Ortiz says there are several mechanisms that can have led to rings around the dwarf planet: "One of our favorite scenarios has to do with collisions on Haumea, which can release material from the surface and send it to orbit." Part of the material that remains closer to Haumea can form a ring, and material further away can help form moons. "Because Haumea spins so quickly," Ortiz adds, "it is also possible that material is shed from the surface due to the centrifugal force, or maybe small collisions can trigger ejections of mass. This can also give rise to a ring and moons."

9. ONE MOON HAS WATER ICE—JUST LIKE HAUMEA.

Ortiz says that while the rings haven't transformed scientists' understanding of Haumea, they have clarified the orbit of its largest moon, Hi'iaka—it is equatorial, meaning it circles around Haumea's equator. Hi'iaka is notable for the crystalline water ice on its surface, similar to that on its parent body.

10. TRYING TO SEE HAUMEA FROM EARTH IS LIKE TRYING TO LOOK AT A COIN MORE THAN 100 MILES AWAY.

It's not easy to study Haumea. The dwarf planet, and other objects at that distance from the Sun, are indiscernible to all but the largest telescopes. One technique used by astronomers to study such objects is called "stellar occultation," in which the object is observed as it crosses in front of a star, causing the star to temporarily dim. (This is how exoplanets—those planets orbiting other stars—are also often located and studied.) This technique doesn't always work for objects beyond the orbit of Neptune, however; astronomers must know the objects' orbits and the position of the would-be eclipsed stars to astounding levels of accuracy, which is not always the case. Moreover, Ortiz says, their sizes are oftentimes very small, "comparable to the size of a small coin viewed at a distance of a couple hundred kilometers."

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